# Publications

### 2015

• B. Schwartz, “Cognitive and biomechanical effects of postural changes in office environments,” in Proceeding 61th spring-congress soc. ergon. work sci. (gfa-frühjahreskongress – verantwortung für die arbeit der zukunft), Karlsruhe, Germany: , 2015.
[BibTeX] [Abstract]

The aim of the study is to investigate the physical and mental effects caused by postural changes between sitting and standing in office environments. Cognitive function, movement pattern, salivary cortisol level, cardiac rhythm, physical activity and workload were measured in laboratory conditions. Up to now, 18 office workers (36.7 Â± 10.0 yrs.) have undergone a measuring routine in alternating (sitting and standing) postures twice. Until the end of the study each subject will take part in 4 measurement days. In order to investigate long-term effects, subjects have been provided with traditional or active workspaces (Sit-to-Stand workstations) in either the first or the second half of the study. To investi- gate short term effects, 38 out of 45 students (22.2 Â± 1.9 yrs.) completed the aforementioned measurement setup twice in either sitting or alter- nating postures at a 1-week interval. Preliminary long-term-study and short-term-study results show significant changes in self-reported seden- tary time (p=0.018) and performance perception (p=0.003, $\eta$ 2 =0.283). Additional findings will be analyzed after completion of both studies.

@InCollection{Schwartz2015,
Title = {{Cognitive and biomechanical effects of postural changes in office environments}},
Author = {Schwartz, Bernhard},
Booktitle = {Proceeding 61th Spring-Congress Soc. Ergon. Work Sci. (GfA-Fr\"{u}hjahreskongress - VerANTWORTung f\"{u}r die Arbeit der Zukunft)},
Year = {2015},
Abstract = {The aim of the study is to investigate the physical and mental effects caused by postural changes between sitting and standing in office environments. Cognitive function, movement pattern, salivary cortisol level, cardiac rhythm, physical activity and workload were measured in laboratory conditions. Up to now, 18 office workers (36.7 Â± 10.0 yrs.) have undergone a measuring routine in alternating (sitting and standing) postures twice. Until the end of the study each subject will take part in 4 measurement days. In order to investigate long-term effects, subjects have been provided with traditional or active workspaces (Sit-to-Stand workstations) in either the first or the second half of the study. To investi- gate short term effects, 38 out of 45 students (22.2 Â± 1.9 yrs.) completed the aforementioned measurement setup twice in either sitting or alter- nating postures at a 1-week interval. Preliminary long-term-study and short-term-study results show significant changes in self-reported seden- tary time (p=0.018) and performance perception (p=0.003, $\eta$ 2 =0.283). Additional findings will be analyzed after completion of both studies.},
File = {:C$\backslash$:/Datein/Papers Mendeley/Schwartz/Proceeding of the 61th Spring-Congress on the Society for Ergonomics and Work Science (GfA-Fr\"{u}hjahreskongress - VerANTWORTung f\"{u}r die Arbeit./E.7.3.pdf:pdf},
Keywords = {adjustable desks,cardiovascular health,height-,mental fatigue,office environment,postural changes,sedentary work},
Owner = {p20529},
Timestamp = {2015.04.10}
}

### 2014

• H. Egger, T. Haslwanter, and R. Merwa, “Gedanken steuern maschinen – moderne technologien fuer schwerstbehinderung,” , Linz, 2014, pp. 118-121.
@InProceedings{Egger2014,
Title = {Gedanken steuern Maschinen - Moderne Technologien fuer Schwerstbehinderung},
Author = {Egger, H. and Haslwanter, T. and Merwa, R.},
Year = {2014},
Editor = {Neumann-Ponesch, S.},
Pages = {118--121},
Publisher = {Wagner Verlag},
Refid = {6697},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {www.fh-ooe.at/iv-kongress2014}
}

• K. Eibenberger, B. G. Eibenberger, D. Roberts, J. Carey, and T. Haslwanter, “Development of a universal search coil monitor system for high acceleration head impulse tests on human subjects.,” in Forschungsforum der ™sterreichischen fachhochschulen, Kufstein, 2014, p. 156–.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Eibenberger2014,
Title = {Development of a Universal Search Coil Monitor System for High Acceleration Head Impulse Tests on Human Subjects.},
Author = {Eibenberger, K. and Eibenberger, B.G. and Roberts, D. and Carey, J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Forschungsforum der ™sterreichischen Fachhochschulen},
Year = {2014},
Pages = {156--},
Keywords = {development, search coil, system, acceleration, head, Impulse, tests, test, human, human subjects},
Refid = {6701},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• K. Eibenberger, B. G. Eibenberger, D. C. Roberts, J. P. Carey, and T. Haslwanter, “Measuring eye movements for oculomotor research – development of a novel digital search coil system,” in Forschungsforum der ”sterreichischen fachhochschulen, Kufstein, Austria, 2014, pp. 458-459.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Eibenberger2014a,
Title = {Measuring Eye Movements for Oculomotor Research - Development of a Novel Digital Search Coil System},
Author = {Eibenberger, K. and Eibenberger, B.G. and Roberts, D.C. and Carey, J.P. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Forschungsforum der ”sterreichischen Fachhochschulen},
Year = {2014},
Editor = {Luethi, J and Steinbacher, H.P.},
Pages = {458--459},
Publisher = {FH Kufstein Tirol BildungsGmbH},
Volume = {8},
Keywords = {eye, eye movements, eye-movements, movements, movement, oculomotor, Research, development, search coil, system},
Refid = {6699},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• K. Eibenberger, J. Carey, T. Ehtiati, C. Trevino, J. Dolberg, and T. Haslwanter, “A novel method of 3d image analysis of high-resolution cone beam ct and multi slice ct for the detection of semicircular canal dehiscence,” Otol.neurotol., vol. 35, iss. 2, pp. 329-337, 2014.

HYPOTHESIS: We investigated if current-generation computed tomographic (CT) scanners have the resolution required to objectively detect bone structure defects as small as 0.1 mm. In addition, we propose that our method is able to predict a possible dehiscence in a semicircular canal. BACKGROUND: In semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD), the bone overlying the superior canal (SC) is partially absent, causing vertigo, autophony, hyperacusis or hearing loss. Diagnosis of SCD is typically based on multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) images combined with the consideration of clinical signs and symptoms. Recent studies have shown that MSCT tends to overestimate the size of dehiscences and may skew the diagnosis towards dehiscence when a thin bone layer remains. Evaluations of CT scans for clinical application are typically observer based. METHODS: We developed a method of objectively evaluating the resolution of CT scanners. We did this for 2 types of computed tomography: MSCT, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which have been reported to have a higher resolution for temporal bone scans. For the evaluation and comparison of image accuracy between different CT scanners and protocols, we built a bone cement phantom containing small, well-defined structural defects (diameter, 0.1-0.4 mm). These small inhomogeneities could reliably be detected by comparing the variances of radiodensities of a region of interest (i.e., a region containing a hole) with a homogenous region. The Fligner-Killeen test was used to predict the presence or absence of a hole (p >/= 0.05). For our second goal, that is, to see how this technique could be applied to the detection of a possible dehiscence in a SC, a cadaveric head specimen was used to create an anatomic model for a borderline SCD; the SC was drilled to the point of translucency. After semi-automatically fitting the location of the canal, our variance-based approach allowed a clear, significant detection of the thin remaining bone layer. RESULTS: Our approach of statistical noise analysis on bone cement phantoms allowed us to distinguish real irregularities from measured image noise or reconstruction errors. We have shown that with computed tomography, an approach comparing radiodensity variance in regions of interest is capable of detecting inhomogeneities down to 0.1 mm (p </= 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our analysis of data from the cadaveric head specimen demonstrates that this approach can be used to objectively detect thin layers of bone overlying an SC. This should provide the basis for using this approach for a semi-automated, objective detection of SCD

@Article{Eibenberger2014b,
Title = {A Novel Method of 3D Image Analysis of High-Resolution Cone Beam CT and Multi Slice CT for the Detection of Semicircular Canal Dehiscence},
Author = {Eibenberger, K. and Carey, J. and Ehtiati, T. and Trevino, C. and Dolberg, J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Otol.Neurotol.},
Year = {2014},
Month = feb,
Number = {2},
Pages = {329--337},
Volume = {35},
Abstract = {HYPOTHESIS: We investigated if current-generation computed tomographic (CT) scanners have the resolution required to objectively detect bone structure defects as small as 0.1 mm. In addition, we propose that our method is able to predict a possible dehiscence in a semicircular canal. BACKGROUND: In semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD), the bone overlying the superior canal (SC) is partially absent, causing vertigo, autophony, hyperacusis or hearing loss. Diagnosis of SCD is typically based on multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) images combined with the consideration of clinical signs and symptoms. Recent studies have shown that MSCT tends to overestimate the size of dehiscences and may skew the diagnosis towards dehiscence when a thin bone layer remains. Evaluations of CT scans for clinical application are typically observer based. METHODS: We developed a method of objectively evaluating the resolution of CT scanners. We did this for 2 types of computed tomography: MSCT, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which have been reported to have a higher resolution for temporal bone scans. For the evaluation and comparison of image accuracy between different CT scanners and protocols, we built a bone cement phantom containing small, well-defined structural defects (diameter, 0.1-0.4 mm). These small inhomogeneities could reliably be detected by comparing the variances of radiodensities of a region of interest (i.e., a region containing a hole) with a homogenous region. The Fligner-Killeen test was used to predict the presence or absence of a hole (p >/= 0.05). For our second goal, that is, to see how this technique could be applied to the detection of a possible dehiscence in a SC, a cadaveric head specimen was used to create an anatomic model for a borderline SCD; the SC was drilled to the point of translucency. After semi-automatically fitting the location of the canal, our variance-based approach allowed a clear, significant detection of the thin remaining bone layer. RESULTS: Our approach of statistical noise analysis on bone cement phantoms allowed us to distinguish real irregularities from measured image noise or reconstruction errors. We have shown that with computed tomography, an approach comparing radiodensity variance in regions of interest is capable of detecting inhomogeneities down to 0.1 mm (p </= 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our analysis of data from the cadaveric head specimen demonstrates that this approach can be used to objectively detect thin layers of bone overlying an SC. This should provide the basis for using this approach for a semi-automated, objective detection of SCD},
Address = {*Department of Medical Engineering, School of Applied Health and Social Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Linz, Austria; daggerDepartment of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.; double daggerFaculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria; section signSiemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Princeton, New Jersey;||Siemens Healthcare, Alpharetta, Georgia, U.S.A.; and paragraph signEscuela de Medicina Ignacio A. Santos, Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico},
Comment = {DA - 20140122 IS - 1537-4505 (Electronic) IS - 1531-7129 (Linking) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM},
Keywords = {analysis, approach, Austria, canal, clinical application, computed tomography, CT, CT scan, data, diagnosis, ENG, evaluation, head, hearing, hearing loss, high resolution, Hyperacusis, loss, method, methods, model, neck, Noise, resolution, result, results, section, semicircular canal, size, skew, structure, studies, surgery, temporal, temporal bone, test, Tomography, vertigo},
Refid = {6693},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:24448293}
}

• R. Kiechl, A. Mayer, E. Quirbach, W. Nothdurfter, T. Haslwanter, L. Saltuari, and M. Kofler, L-stiff, h reflex, ashworth: comparison of methods for assessment of muscle tone, 2014.
[BibTeX]
@Unpublished{Kiechl2014,
Title = {L-Stiff, H reflex, Ashworth: Comparison of methods for assessment of muscle tone},
Author = {Kiechl, R. and Mayer, A. and Quirbach, E. and Nothdurfter, W. and Haslwanter, T. and Saltuari, L. and Kofler, M},
Year = {2014},
Keywords = {H, H reflex, H-reflex, Reflex, methods, method, assessment, muscle},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {6706},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• K. Probst, D. Lindlbauer, M. Haller, B. Schwartz, and A. Schrempf, “Exploring the Potential of Peripheral Interaction through Smart Furniture,” in Peripher. interact. shap. res. des. space, work. chi 2014, Toronto, ON, Canada: , 2014.
[BibTeX] [Abstract]

During everyday office work we are used to controlling our computers with keyboard and mouse, whereas the physical space around us remains largely unattended. Addressing this untapped potential, we follow an ap- proach that is based on gestural interaction with smart furniture interfaces, subtly blended into the work envi- ronment. Adding to existing work on peripheral interac- tion, we provide a case study of a novel input technique that turns a flexible chair into a ubiquitous input device within an office environment. We propose using impre- cise semaphoric chair gestures to support always- available, hands-free, and eyes-free interaction.

@InCollection{Probst2014CHIWS,
Title = {{Exploring the Potential of Peripheral Interaction through Smart Furniture}},
Author = {Probst, Kathrin and Lindlbauer, David and Haller, Michael and Schwartz, Bernhard and Schrempf, Andreas},
Booktitle = {Peripher. Interact. Shap. Res. Des. Space, Work. CHI 2014},
Year = {2014},
Abstract = {During everyday office work we are used to controlling our computers with keyboard and mouse, whereas the physical space around us remains largely unattended. Addressing this untapped potential, we follow an ap- proach that is based on gestural interaction with smart furniture interfaces, subtly blended into the work envi- ronment. Adding to existing work on peripheral interac- tion, we provide a case study of a novel input technique that turns a flexible chair into a ubiquitous input device within an office environment. We propose using impre- cise semaphoric chair gestures to support always- available, hands-free, and eyes-free interaction.},
File = {:C$\backslash$:/Datein/Papers Mendeley/Probst et al/Peripheral Interaction Shaping the Research and Design Space, Workshop at CHI 2014/Probst - Unknown - Exploring the Potential of Peripheral Interaction through Smart Furniture.pdf:pdf},
Owner = {p20529},
Timestamp = {2015.04.10}
}

• T. Rumetshofer, T. Haslwanter, and M. Lehner, “Datenbank fuer hilfsmittel im internet,” , Linz, 2014, pp. 125-127.
@InProceedings{Rumetshofer2014,
Title = {Datenbank fuer Hilfsmittel im Internet},
Author = {Rumetshofer, T. and Haslwanter, T. and Lehner, M.},
Year = {2014},
Editor = {Neumann-Ponesch, S.},
Month = may,
Pages = {125--127},
Publisher = {Wagner Verlag},
Refid = {6698},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {www.fh-ooe.at/iv-kongress2014}
}

### 2013

• K. Probst, D. Lindlbauer, F. Perteneder, B. Schwartz, and A. Schrempf, “Exploring the Use of Distributed Multiple Monitors Within an Activity-Promoting Sit-and-Stand Office Workspace,” in Proc. 14th ifip tc13 conf. human-computer interact., Capetown, South Africa: , 2013, vol. 8119, pp. 476-493.

Nowadays sedentary behaviors such as prolonged sitting have become a predominant element of our lives. Particularly in the office environment, many people spend the majority of their working day seated in front of a computer. In this paper, we investigate the adoption of a physically active work process within an activity-promoting office workspace design that is composed of a sitting and a standing workstation. Making use of multiple distributed monitors, this environment introduces diversity into the office workflow through the facilitation of transitions between different work-related tasks, workstations, and work postures. We conducted a background study to get a better understanding of how people are performing their daily work within this novel workspace. Our findings identify different work patterns and basic approaches for physical activity integration, which indicate a number of challenges for software design. Based on the results of the study, we provide design implications and highlight new directions in the field of HCI design to support seamless alternation between different postures while working in such an environment.

@InCollection{Probst2013Interact,
Title = {{Exploring the Use of Distributed Multiple Monitors Within an Activity-Promoting Sit-and-Stand Office Workspace}},
Author = {Probst, Kathrin and Lindlbauer, David and Perteneder, Florian and Schwartz, Bernhard and Schrempf, Andreas},
Booktitle = {Proc. 14th IFIP TC13 Conf. Human-Computer Interact.},
Year = {2013},
Pages = {476--493},
Volume = {8119},
Abstract = {Nowadays sedentary behaviors such as prolonged sitting have become a predominant element of our lives. Particularly in the office environment, many people spend the majority of their working day seated in front of a computer. In this paper, we investigate the adoption of a physically active work process within an activity-promoting office workspace design that is composed of a sitting and a standing workstation. Making use of multiple distributed monitors, this environment introduces diversity into the office workflow through the facilitation of transitions between different work-related tasks, workstations, and work postures. We conducted a background study to get a better understanding of how people are performing their daily work within this novel workspace. Our findings identify different work patterns and basic approaches for physical activity integration, which indicate a number of challenges for software design. Based on the results of the study, we provide design implications and highlight new directions in the field of HCI design to support seamless alternation between different postures while working in such an environment.},
File = {:C$\backslash$:/Datein/Papers Mendeley/Probst et al/Proceedings of the 14th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction/probstInteract2013.pdf:pdf},
Keywords = {distributed display environment,multi-monitor,user interaction},
Owner = {p20529},
Timestamp = {2015.04.10},
}

• B. Schwartz, A. Schrempf, K. Probst, and M. Haller, “Recognizing static and dynamic sitting behavior by means of instrumented office chairs,” Proc. 10th iasted int. conf. biomed. eng., iss. BioMed, pp. 67-74, 2013. doi:10.2316/P.2013.791-142
[BibTeX] [Abstract]

The increasing degree of computerization over the past years had led to higher amounts of sedentary time and time spent in static postures, which can be associated with higher risks of chronic diseases, obesity and even mortality. To counteract this negative developments a novel workplace conception called â€œActive Officeâ€? consisting of a standing and a sitting desk as well as an active chair is going to be developed. This new working place concept should motivate users to more physical activity by changing working posture and position whenever desired. An important part for the objective evaluation of this concept is the possibility to track the userâ€™s physical activity during several working days in comparison to a standard working place configuration. In this paper two prototypes of instrumented chairs are introduced, which allow to measure and quantify the sitting behavior of different persons. The devices consist of a smart sensor platform integrating sensors for posture measurement as well as the communication via a wireless protocol for data acquisition. The two prototypes were evaluated by means of a user study, where the sitting behavior of different users was recorded during several working days. It turned out that the instrumented office chairs are able to detect the userâ€™s physical activity within different working place configurations which provides a valuable basis for the further development and evaluation of the Active Office concept.

@Article{Schwartz2013,
Title = {{Recognizing static and dynamic sitting behavior by means of instrumented office chairs}},
Author = {Schwartz, Bernhard and Schrempf, Andreas and Probst, Kathrin and Haller, Michael},
Journal = {Proc. 10th IASTED Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng.},
Year = {2013},
Number = {BioMed},
Pages = {67--74},
Abstract = {The increasing degree of computerization over the past years had led to higher amounts of sedentary time and time spent in static postures, which can be associated with higher risks of chronic diseases, obesity and even mortality. To counteract this negative developments a novel workplace conception called â€œActive Officeâ€? consisting of a standing and a sitting desk as well as an active chair is going to be developed. This new working place concept should motivate users to more physical activity by changing working posture and position whenever desired. An important part for the objective evaluation of this concept is the possibility to track the userâ€™s physical activity during several working days in comparison to a standard working place configuration. In this paper two prototypes of instrumented chairs are introduced, which allow to measure and quantify the sitting behavior of different persons. The devices consist of a smart sensor platform integrating sensors for posture measurement as well as the communication via a wireless protocol for data acquisition. The two prototypes were evaluated by means of a user study, where the sitting behavior of different users was recorded during several working days. It turned out that the instrumented office chairs are able to detect the userâ€™s physical activity within different working place configurations which provides a valuable basis for the further development and evaluation of the Active Office concept.},
Doi = {10.2316/P.2013.791-142},
File = {:C$\backslash$:/Datein/Papers Mendeley/Schwartz et al/Proceedings of the 10th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering/Schwartz et al. - 2013 - Recognizing static and dynamic sitting behavior by means of instrumented office chairs.pdf:pdf},
Keywords = {active sitting,activity monitoring,sedentary behavior},
Owner = {p20529},
Timestamp = {2015.04.10}
}

### 2012

• K. Eibenberger, M. Ring, and T. Haslwanter, “Sustained effects for training of smooth pursuit plasticity,” Exp.brain res., vol. 218, iss. 1, pp. 81-89, 2012.

Maintaining orientation in space is a multisensory process, with the vestibular, visual, auditory and somatosensory systems as inputs. Since the input from each individual system changes, for example due to aging, the central nervous system must continuously adapt to these changes to maintain proper system performance. Changes can also be elicited by targeted modifications of the inputs, or by controlled training of sensory systems. While the effects of adaptation on eye movements elicited by the vestibulo-ocular reflex are well established, modifications of the efficacy of smooth pursuit eye movements are less well understood. We have investigated whether two 6-min training sessions on three subsequent days can induce lasting changes in the open- and closed-loop smooth pursuit performance of healthy, adult subjects. Ten subjects practiced making pursuit eye movements by tracking a target cross which moved quasi-randomly on a computer screen. Smooth pursuit performance was tested with a step-ramp paradigm immediately before and after the training, as well as 5 days after the last training session. Our results show that even such short training sessions can induce significant, lasting improvements in closed-loop smooth pursuit performance if the pursuit system of the subjects is challenged sufficiently during training. Control experiments on ten additional adult subjects who had their pursuit performance tested before and after a 20 min break without visual training confirmed that the pursuit enhancement is due to the visual training and not due to perceptual learning

@Article{Eibenberger2012,
Title = {Sustained effects for training of smooth pursuit plasticity},
Author = {Eibenberger, K. and Ring, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {2012},
Month = apr,
Number = {1},
Pages = {81--89},
Volume = {218},
Abstract = {Maintaining orientation in space is a multisensory process, with the vestibular, visual, auditory and somatosensory systems as inputs. Since the input from each individual system changes, for example due to aging, the central nervous system must continuously adapt to these changes to maintain proper system performance. Changes can also be elicited by targeted modifications of the inputs, or by controlled training of sensory systems. While the effects of adaptation on eye movements elicited by the vestibulo-ocular reflex are well established, modifications of the efficacy of smooth pursuit eye movements are less well understood. We have investigated whether two 6-min training sessions on three subsequent days can induce lasting changes in the open- and closed-loop smooth pursuit performance of healthy, adult subjects. Ten subjects practiced making pursuit eye movements by tracking a target cross which moved quasi-randomly on a computer screen. Smooth pursuit performance was tested with a step-ramp paradigm immediately before and after the training, as well as 5 days after the last training session. Our results show that even such short training sessions can induce significant, lasting improvements in closed-loop smooth pursuit performance if the pursuit system of the subjects is challenged sufficiently during training. Control experiments on ten additional adult subjects who had their pursuit performance tested before and after a 20 min break without visual training confirmed that the pursuit enhancement is due to the visual training and not due to perceptual learning},
Address = {Department of Medical Engineering, School of Applied Health and Social Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Garnisonstrasse 21, 4020, Linz, Austria},
Comment = {DA - 20120329 IS - 1432-1106 (Electronic) IS - 0014-4819 (Linking) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {adaptation, Adult, aging, auditory, Austria, Central Nervous System, control, effect, efficacy, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye-movements, learning, modification, movement, movements, Multisensory, Nervous System, orientation, performance, plasticity, pursuit, pursuit eye movement, pursuit eye movements, Reflex, result, results, smooth pursuit, smooth pursuit eye movement, smooth pursuit eye movements, Somatosensory, somatosensory system, space, system, tracking, training, vestibular, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, vestibuloocular reflex, visual},
Refid = {6671},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:22349496}
}

• M. H. Ring, D. F. Rabensteiner, J. Horwath-Winter, I. Boldin, R. Horantner, and T. Haslwanter, “Introducing a new parameter for the assessment of the tear film lipid layer,” Invest ophthalmol.vis.sci., vol. 53, iss. 10, pp. 6638-6644, 2012.

Purpose. The differential diagnosis of dry eye syndrome is still a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between a novel, objective clinical parameter, the "corrected lipid layer stabilization time," and commonly performed clinical tests for dry eye patients. Methods. Data were obtained from a prospective clinical study with 59 patients of different subjective severity, as determined with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The dynamics of the tear film lipid layer were made visible through a white light source and were stored digitally. Because the distance between the upper and lower eyelid affects the lipid layer dynamics and varies significantly between subjects, the distance of the eyelids was determined and used to correct the lipid layer stabilization time. The resulting parameter was compared with common clinical procedures. Results. The corrected lipid layer stabilization time has a highly significant correlation with tear film breakup time (Spearman r = -0.485, P < 0.01), Schirmer test without anesthesia (r = -0.431, P < 0.01) and with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (r = 0.498, P < 0.01). It also correlates with the lissamine green staining score (r = 0.379, P < 0.05), but shows no correlation with the osmolarity of the tear film. Without the correction for the eyelid opening, the correlations decrease considerably. Conclusions. These data suggest that the diagnostic value of the lipid layer stabilization time for the assessment of the severity of dry eye syndrome increases considerably when it is corrected by the distance of the eyelids

@Article{Ring2012,
Title = {Introducing a new parameter for the assessment of the tear film lipid layer},
Author = {Ring, M.H. and Rabensteiner, D.F. and Horwath-Winter, J. and Boldin, I. and Horantner, R. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci.},
Year = {2012},
Number = {10},
Pages = {6638--6644},
Volume = {53},
Abstract = {Purpose. The differential diagnosis of dry eye syndrome is still a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between a novel, objective clinical parameter, the "corrected lipid layer stabilization time," and commonly performed clinical tests for dry eye patients. Methods. Data were obtained from a prospective clinical study with 59 patients of different subjective severity, as determined with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The dynamics of the tear film lipid layer were made visible through a white light source and were stored digitally. Because the distance between the upper and lower eyelid affects the lipid layer dynamics and varies significantly between subjects, the distance of the eyelids was determined and used to correct the lipid layer stabilization time. The resulting parameter was compared with common clinical procedures. Results. The corrected lipid layer stabilization time has a highly significant correlation with tear film breakup time (Spearman r = -0.485, P < 0.01), Schirmer test without anesthesia (r = -0.431, P < 0.01) and with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (r = 0.498, P < 0.01). It also correlates with the lissamine green staining score (r = 0.379, P < 0.05), but shows no correlation with the osmolarity of the tear film. Without the correction for the eyelid opening, the correlations decrease considerably. Conclusions. These data suggest that the diagnostic value of the lipid layer stabilization time for the assessment of the severity of dry eye syndrome increases considerably when it is corrected by the distance of the eyelids},
Address = {Department of Medical Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Linz, Austria;},
Comment = {DA - 20121001 IS - 1552-5783 (Electronic) IS - 0146-0404 (Linking) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Affect, Anesthesia, assessment, Austria, data, diagnosis, diagnostic, differential diagnosis, disease, DISTANCE, dynamics, ENG, eye, Eyelids, Light, method, methods, ocular, osmolarity, patients, result, results, severity, stabilization, studies, syndrome, test, tests},
Refid = {6689},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:22918634}
}

### 2011

• M. Brandner, M. Buchberger, T. Kaltofen, T. Haslwanter, R. Hoerantner, and A. Langmann, “Biomechanical analysis of x-pattern exotropia,” Am.j.ophthalmol., vol. 152, iss. 1, pp. 141-146, 2011.

PURPOSE: To simulate and check the plausibility of the proposed mechanisms of X-pattern exotropia and to determine the least invasive surgical method that can be used to treat the disorder. DESIGN: Computational supported analysis and retrospective study. METHODS: The oculomotor model SEE++ was used to simulate the effects of the different causes that have been proposed for the X-phenomenon. In addition, a retrospective study was conducted using preoperative and postoperative measurements of 10 patients with X-pattern exotropia. Eye movements and surgery of these patients were simulated and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Our computer-based simulations showed that only 1 of the 4 proposed theories can account successfully for the observed X-patterns: an overaction of all 4 oblique muscles can induce divergent exotropia in upgaze and downgaze, and an alteration of horizontal muscles can cause the additional divergence in all gaze positions. The simulation of eye muscle surgery confirmed that a sufficient correction of the divergent deviation in all gazes already can be achieved by a recession and resection of 2 horizontal eye muscles. CONCLUSIONS: In case of X-pattern exotropia, recession and resection of 2 horizontal muscles can be used as a first-line therapy, leading to a simplification of the therapy

@Article{Brandner2011,
Title = {Biomechanical analysis of x-pattern exotropia},
Author = {Brandner, M. and Buchberger, M. and Kaltofen, T. and Haslwanter, T. and Hoerantner, R. and Langmann, A.},
Journal = {Am.J.Ophthalmol.},
Year = {2011},
Month = jul,
Number = {1},
Pages = {141--146},
Volume = {152},
Abstract = {PURPOSE: To simulate and check the plausibility of the proposed mechanisms of X-pattern exotropia and to determine the least invasive surgical method that can be used to treat the disorder. DESIGN: Computational supported analysis and retrospective study. METHODS: The oculomotor model SEE++ was used to simulate the effects of the different causes that have been proposed for the X-phenomenon. In addition, a retrospective study was conducted using preoperative and postoperative measurements of 10 patients with X-pattern exotropia. Eye movements and surgery of these patients were simulated and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Our computer-based simulations showed that only 1 of the 4 proposed theories can account successfully for the observed X-patterns: an overaction of all 4 oblique muscles can induce divergent exotropia in upgaze and downgaze, and an alteration of horizontal muscles can cause the additional divergence in all gaze positions. The simulation of eye muscle surgery confirmed that a sufficient correction of the divergent deviation in all gazes already can be achieved by a recession and resection of 2 horizontal eye muscles. CONCLUSIONS: In case of X-pattern exotropia, recession and resection of 2 horizontal muscles can be used as a first-line therapy, leading to a simplification of the therapy},
Address = {Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria. martina.brandner@medunigraz.at},
Comment = {DA - 20110627 IS - 1879-1891 (Electronic) IS - 0002-9394 (Linking) LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't SB - AIM SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, analysis, Austria, Computer Simulation, effect, ENG, Exotropia, eye, eye movements, eye muscles, eye-movements, Gaze, gaze position, Gov't, humans, mechanism, MECHANISMS, method, methods, model, movement, movements, muscle, muscles, oculomotor, oculomotor model, Oculomotor Muscles, Ophthalmology, patients, physiology, physiopathology, position, Research, result, results, Retrospective Studies, simulation, studies, surgery, surgical, therapy, Vision,Binocular},
Refid = {6516},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:21570673}
}

• B. Buki, M. Platz, T. Haslwanter, H. Junger, and P. Avan, “Results of electrocochleography in meniere’s disease after successful vertigo control by single intratympanic gentamicin injection,” Audiol.neurotol., vol. 16, iss. 1, pp. 49-54, 2011.

In the last several years, a promising new approach has been suggested in the therapy of Meniere’s disease (MD): the low-dose intratympanic gentamicin therapy. By titrating the desired vestibular inhibition by single injections and infrequent administration, side effects concerning hearing can be held on an acceptably low level, while disease-related symptoms are often successfully eliminated. However, it is still unclear if endolymphatic hydrops actually decreases when the patients become symptom free. In the literature, hydrops is significantly associated with an enhanced ratio of summating potential/action potential (SP/AP). Our aim in this retrospective study was to answer the question if pathologically high SP/AP ratios normalize after successful low-dose intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Twenty-eight patients with MD received one, two or three intratympanic gentamicin injections. These injections inhibited vertigo spells without causing additional hearing loss. SP/AP ratios measured by noninvasive electrocochleography did not improve statistically when patients became symptom free. This indicates that the beneficial effect of gentamicin does not depend on the improvement of SP/AP ratios. Considering the well-established correlation between increased SP/AP and active MD, it thus seems unlikely that gentamicin treatment significantly reduces hydrops

@Article{Buki2011,
Title = {Results of Electrocochleography in Meniere's Disease after Successful Vertigo Control by Single Intratympanic Gentamicin Injection},
Author = {Buki, B. and Platz, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Junger, H. and Avan, P.},
Journal = {Audiol.Neurotol.},
Year = {2011},
Month = jun,
Number = {1},
Pages = {49--54},
Volume = {16},
Abstract = {In the last several years, a promising new approach has been suggested in the therapy of Meniere's disease (MD): the low-dose intratympanic gentamicin therapy. By titrating the desired vestibular inhibition by single injections and infrequent administration, side effects concerning hearing can be held on an acceptably low level, while disease-related symptoms are often successfully eliminated. However, it is still unclear if endolymphatic hydrops actually decreases when the patients become symptom free. In the literature, hydrops is significantly associated with an enhanced ratio of summating potential/action potential (SP/AP). Our aim in this retrospective study was to answer the question if pathologically high SP/AP ratios normalize after successful low-dose intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Twenty-eight patients with MD received one, two or three intratympanic gentamicin injections. These injections inhibited vertigo spells without causing additional hearing loss. SP/AP ratios measured by noninvasive electrocochleography did not improve statistically when patients became symptom free. This indicates that the beneficial effect of gentamicin does not depend on the improvement of SP/AP ratios. Considering the well-established correlation between increased SP/AP and active MD, it thus seems unlikely that gentamicin treatment significantly reduces hydrops},
Address = {ENT Department, General Hospital Krems, Krems, Austria},
Comment = {DA - 20100604 IS - 1421-9700 (Electronic) IS - 1420-3030 (Linking) LA - ENG PT - JOURNAL ARTICLE
reviewed},
Keywords = {approach, Austria, control, disease, effect, Electrocochleography, endolymphatic, endolymphatic hydrops, ENG, gentamicin, gentamicin treatment, hearing, hearing loss, hydrops, inhibition, Injections, intratympanic, intratympanic gentamicin, loss, Meniere, Meniere's, Meniere's disease, patients, potential, result, results, Retrospective Studies, side effects, SP/AP ratio, studies, therapy, treatment, vertigo, vestibular},
Refid = {6407},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:20523039}
}

### 2010

• T. Haslwanter and J. Waldh”r, “Measuring 3d arm movements for activities of daily living,” in Measuring behavior, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2010, pp. 306-309.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter2010,
Title = {Measuring 3D Arm Movements for Activities of Daily Living},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Waldh”r, J.},
Booktitle = {Measuring Behavior},
Year = {2010},
Editor = {Spink, A.J. and Grieco, F. and Krips, O.E. and Loijens, L.W.S. and Noldus, L.P.J.J. and Zimmerman, P.H.},
Pages = {306--309},
Publisher = {Noldus Information Technology bv},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {arm, arm movement, movements, movement, activity, Activities of Daily Living, living, Behavior},
Refid = {6404},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter and A. H. Clarke, “Eye movement measurement: electro-oculography and video-oculography,” in Vestibular and balance disorders, D. S. Zee and S. D. Eggers, Eds., Elsevier, 2010, pp. 61-80.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Haslwanter2010a,
Title = {Eye movement measurement: Electro-Oculography and Video-Oculography},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Clarke, A.H.},
Booktitle = {Vestibular and Balance Disorders},
Publisher = {Elsevier},
Year = {2010},
Editor = {Zee, D.S. and Eggers, S.D.},
Number = {II},
Pages = {61--80},
Keywords = {vestibular, balance, balance disorders, disorders, eye, movement, Electrooculography, video-oculography},
Refid = {6186},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• J. K. Ong and T. Haslwanter, “Measuring torsional eye movements by tracking stable iris features,” J.neurosci.methods, vol. 192, iss. 2, pp. 261-267, 2010.

We propose a new method to measure torsional eye movements from videos taken of the eye. In this method, we track iris features that have been identified as Maximally Stable Volumes. These features, which are stable over time, are dark regions with bright borders that are steep in intensity. The advantage of Maximally Stable Volumes is that they are robust to nonuniform illumination and to large changes in eye and camera position. The method performs well even when the iris is partially occluded by reflections or eyelids, and is faster than cross-correlation. In addition, it is possible to use the method on videos of macaque eyes taken in the infrared, where the iris appears almost featureless

@Article{Ong2010,
Title = {Measuring torsional eye movements by tracking stable iris features},
Author = {Ong, J.K. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {J.Neurosci.Methods},
Year = {2010},
Month = oct,
Number = {2},
Pages = {261--267},
Volume = {192},
Abstract = {We propose a new method to measure torsional eye movements from videos taken of the eye. In this method, we track iris features that have been identified as Maximally Stable Volumes. These features, which are stable over time, are dark regions with bright borders that are steep in intensity. The advantage of Maximally Stable Volumes is that they are robust to nonuniform illumination and to large changes in eye and camera position. The method performs well even when the iris is partially occluded by reflections or eyelids, and is faster than cross-correlation. In addition, it is possible to use the method on videos of macaque eyes taken in the infrared, where the iris appears almost featureless},
Address = {Institute of Medical Device Engineering, FH OO Forschungs \& Entwicklungs GmbH, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Garnisonstr 21, 4020 Linz, Austria. james.ong@fh-linz.at},
Comment = {DA - 20100920 IS - 1872-678X (Electronic) IS - 0165-0270 (Linking) LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Austria, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye-movements, Eyelids, Gov't, infrared, Iris, Macaque, method, movement, movements, position, torsional eye movement, Torsional eye movements, tracking, video},
Refid = {6458},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:20708033}
}

### 2009

• T. Haslwanter and J. Ong, “Applying knowledge–challenges in bringing scientific advances to dizzy patients,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 1164, pp. 309-315, 2009.

Simple diagnostic or therapeutic procedures can produce tremendous benefits for dizzy patients. To see how new ideas in the laboratory evolve into benefits for patients, an attempt to analyze how the corresponding information is distributed was made. To quantify that flow of information, a number of new scientific publications, citation numbers, and a number of new books on relevant subjects were looked at. For vertigo, this approach was facilitated by the fact that the diagnostic procedures for benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) and for canal paresis can be traced back to seminal publications. Results indicate that the current way of disseminating new information used here is working well, and that new ideas on diagnosis and treatment are readily available to practitioners. However, the application of new methods is limited by the availability of the required technology. It is conjectured that the technological requirements have become more complex over time, leading to a slower uptake of new technology

@Article{Haslwanter2009,
Title = {Applying knowledge--challenges in bringing scientific advances to dizzy patients},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Ong, J.},
Year = {2009},
Month = may,
Pages = {309--315},
Volume = {1164},
Abstract = {Simple diagnostic or therapeutic procedures can produce tremendous benefits for dizzy patients. To see how new ideas in the laboratory evolve into benefits for patients, an attempt to analyze how the corresponding information is distributed was made. To quantify that flow of information, a number of new scientific publications, citation numbers, and a number of new books on relevant subjects were looked at. For vertigo, this approach was facilitated by the fact that the diagnostic procedures for benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) and for canal paresis can be traced back to seminal publications. Results indicate that the current way of disseminating new information used here is working well, and that new ideas on diagnosis and treatment are readily available to practitioners. However, the application of new methods is limited by the availability of the required technology. It is conjectured that the technological requirements have become more complex over time, leading to a slower uptake of new technology},
Address = {Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Linz, Austria. thomas.haslwanter@fh-linz.at},
Comment = {DA - 20090803 IS - 1749-6632 (Electronic) IS - 1749-6632 (Linking) LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't SB - IM},
Keywords = {approach, Austria, benign, benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo, bppv, canal, complex, current, diagnosis, diagnostic, Diffusion of Innovation, dizziness, ENG, eye movements, Gov't, humans, method, methods, paresis, patients, physiopathology, positioning vertigo, result, results, treatment, vertigo},
Refid = {6383},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:19645917}
}

• J. Ong and T. Haslwanter, “Measuring torsion by tracking stable iris features.” 2009, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Ong2009,
Title = {Measuring torsion by tracking stable iris features},
Author = {Ong, J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Year = {2009},
Pages = {--},
Publisher = {American Society for Neurscience},
Keywords = {torsion, tracking, Iris},
Refid = {6392},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• M. Platz, T. Haslwanter, and J. K. Y. Ong, “Optimizing video- oculography systems by simulating the effect of slippage artifacts,” in Proceedings of the 21st european modeling & simulation symposium (emss09), 2009, pp. 148-153.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Platz2009,
Title = {Optimizing Video- Oculography Systems by Simulating the Effect of Slippage Artifacts},
Author = {Platz, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Ong, J.K.Y.},
Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st European Modeling \& Simulation Symposium (EMSS09)},
Year = {2009},
Editor = {Frydman, C. and Longo, F. and Mekouar, K.},
Pages = {148--153},
Publisher = {Proceedings of the 21st European Modeling \& Simulation Symposium (EMSS09)Universidad de la Laguna, 2009},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {video, system, effect, Artifacts, modeling, simulation},
Refid = {6384},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 2008

• T. Haslwanter and J. Ong, “New medical technologies: the journey from the laboratory to the patient,” in Fh science day, Aachen, 2008, pp. 123-128.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter2008,
Title = {New Medical Technologies: The Journey from the Laboratory to the Patient},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Ong, J.},
Booktitle = {FH Science Day},
Year = {2008},
Editor = {Auinger, A. and Engelhardt-Nowitzki, C. and Gumpinger, M. and Hofstadler, H. and Jaeger, A. and Jodlbauer, H. and Kastner, J. and Kindermann, H. and Langer, J. and Lehner, M. and Leindecker, H.C. and Zauner, M.},
Pages = {123--128},
Publisher = {Shaker Verlag},
Refid = {6328},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• R. Jaeger, A. V. Kondrachuk, and T. Haslwanter, “The distribution of otolith polarization vectors in mammals: comparison between model predictions and single cell recordings,” Hear.res., vol. 239, iss. 1-2, pp. 12-19, 2008.

The transformation of head-movements into neural signals represents a multi-stage process. It depends on orientation and movement of the head, the geometry and mechanics of the vestibular sensors, and the ensuing processing of the peripheral vestibular signals. While this process is well understood for the semicircular canals, where each canal transduces the angular velocity in the corresponding canal plane, the contributions of the individual otoliths, our linear acceleration sensors, are still under debate. This is in part due to the complex geometrical structure of the otoliths. To improve our understanding of the otoliths, we have developed a new technique to visualize otolith function: using measured 3D-shapes of human otoliths and the observed 2D patterns of hair cell orientation over the epithelia, morphological polarization vectors are predicted. To visualize the geometric distribution of these vectors, we have created distribution plots which indicate the density of hair cell polarization vectors for the different directions. In many respects, our results closely agree with earlier recordings of polarization vectors of vestibular afferents in squirrel monkeys: for example, hair cells on the saccule do not cover the sagittal plane equally, but show a strong concentration in the dorso-ventral directions. Some discrepancies exist in the density distribution of otolith, which could provide valuable information for future anatomical investigations of the otoliths

@Article{Jaeger2008,
Title = {The distribution of otolith polarization vectors in mammals: comparison between model predictions and single cell recordings},
Author = {Jaeger, R. and Kondrachuk, A.V. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Hear.Res.},
Year = {2008},
Month = may,
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {12--19},
Volume = {239},
Abstract = {The transformation of head-movements into neural signals represents a multi-stage process. It depends on orientation and movement of the head, the geometry and mechanics of the vestibular sensors, and the ensuing processing of the peripheral vestibular signals. While this process is well understood for the semicircular canals, where each canal transduces the angular velocity in the corresponding canal plane, the contributions of the individual otoliths, our linear acceleration sensors, are still under debate. This is in part due to the complex geometrical structure of the otoliths. To improve our understanding of the otoliths, we have developed a new technique to visualize otolith function: using measured 3D-shapes of human otoliths and the observed 2D patterns of hair cell orientation over the epithelia, morphological polarization vectors are predicted. To visualize the geometric distribution of these vectors, we have created distribution plots which indicate the density of hair cell polarization vectors for the different directions. In many respects, our results closely agree with earlier recordings of polarization vectors of vestibular afferents in squirrel monkeys: for example, hair cells on the saccule do not cover the sagittal plane equally, but show a strong concentration in the dorso-ventral directions. Some discrepancies exist in the density distribution of otolith, which could provide valuable information for future anatomical investigations of the otoliths},
Address = {Department of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tubingen, Germany. rudijaeger@yahoo.com},
Comment = {DA - 20080428 IS - 0378-5955 (Print) LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {acceleration, afferent, afferents, Algorithms, Animals, Biomechanics, canal, canals, cell, cells, complex, direction, ENG, Epithelium, function, Germany, Gov't, hair, hair cell, hair cells, Hair Cells,Auditory, Haplorhini, head, head movement, head movements, hearing, human, humans, Imaging,Three-Dimensional, linear, linear acceleration, mammal, Mammals, metabolism, model, Models,Biological, monkey, monkeys, movement, orientation, otolith, otolith function, Otolithic Membrane, Otoliths, pathology, patterns, peripheral, physiology, prediction, recordings, result, results, saccule, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, signal, signals, single cell, squirrel monkey, structure, velocity, vestibular, vestibular afferent, vestibular afferents, vestibular signal},
Refid = {6323},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:18316166}
}

• M. Koch, S. Priglinger, R. Hoerantner, and T. Haslwanter, “Computer-assisted dosage calculation for strabismus therapy in myopic patients,” Acta ophthalmol., vol. 86, iss. 1, pp. 53-57, 2008.

PURPOSE: The published dosage recommendations for the surgical correction of horizontal strabismus in non-myopic patients show large, unexplained differences. For patients with high myopia, the situation becomes even more complex because the increase in the size of the bulb also affects the geometry of the oculomotor muscles. In this study, we wanted to investigate whether computer simulations of the oculomotor plant can be used to find accurate surgical parameters. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we investigated pre- and postoperative strabismus patterns in 13 patients affected by convergent (seven patients) or divergent (six patients) strabismus and high myopia. Postoperative checks were made 1 day, 1 week, 3 months and 1-6 years after the operation. For each patient, we simulated the presurgical strabismus pattern with SEE++ (see ‘Further Information’ for manufacturer details), a biomechanical simulation program of the oculomotor plant. The individual results of the simulations were then compared to the measured postoperative strabismus patterns. RESULTS: We found a trend of under-correction in the postoperative situation, resulting in four patients having a large remaining strabismus angle of more than 5 degrees. The computer simulations were able to reproduce this under-correction, and suggested an increase in dosage. CONCLUSION: We conclude that realistic biomechanical simulations of the oculomotor plant can predict the postoperative result for myopic patients accurately. The results of the computer simulation correlate well with the postoperative outcome of the patient

@Article{Koch2008,
Title = {Computer-assisted dosage calculation for strabismus therapy in myopic patients},
Author = {Koch, M. and Priglinger, S. and Hoerantner, R. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Acta Ophthalmol.},
Year = {2008},
Month = feb,
Number = {1},
Pages = {53--57},
Volume = {86},
Abstract = {PURPOSE: The published dosage recommendations for the surgical correction of horizontal strabismus in non-myopic patients show large, unexplained differences. For patients with high myopia, the situation becomes even more complex because the increase in the size of the bulb also affects the geometry of the oculomotor muscles. In this study, we wanted to investigate whether computer simulations of the oculomotor plant can be used to find accurate surgical parameters. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we investigated pre- and postoperative strabismus patterns in 13 patients affected by convergent (seven patients) or divergent (six patients) strabismus and high myopia. Postoperative checks were made 1 day, 1 week, 3 months and 1-6 years after the operation. For each patient, we simulated the presurgical strabismus pattern with SEE++ (see 'Further Information' for manufacturer details), a biomechanical simulation program of the oculomotor plant. The individual results of the simulations were then compared to the measured postoperative strabismus patterns. RESULTS: We found a trend of under-correction in the postoperative situation, resulting in four patients having a large remaining strabismus angle of more than 5 degrees. The computer simulations were able to reproduce this under-correction, and suggested an increase in dosage. CONCLUSION: We conclude that realistic biomechanical simulations of the oculomotor plant can predict the postoperative result for myopic patients accurately. The results of the computer simulation correlate well with the postoperative outcome of the patient},
Address = {Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Graz, Graz, Austria},
Comment = {DA - 20080131 IS - 1755-3768 (Electronic) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adolescent, Adult, Affect, Austria, child, Child,Preschool, complex, complications, Computer Simulation, ENG, humans, method, methods, Middle Aged, Models,Biological, muscle, muscles, myopia, oculomotor, Oculomotor Muscles, oculomotor plant, Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures, Ophthalmology, outcome, patients, patterns, physiopathology, Postoperative Period, result, results, Retrospective Studies, simulation, size, strabismus, studies, surgery, Surgery,Computer-Assisted, surgical, therapy, Treatment Outcome},
Refid = {6460},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:17681035}
}

• M. Platz, J. Scharinger, and T. Haslwanter, “Optimizing video-oculographic (vog) eye movement recordings of rapid head impulses,” Annual meeting of the american society for neuroscience, p. –, 2008.

Video-based eye movement recording, often called "Video-Oculography" (VOG), is replacing other techniques as the standard tool for measuring eye movements, for clinical applications as well as for research. Since new types of video cameras now regularly offer sampling rates above 100 Hz, the biggest remaining problem is the artifacts caused by camera movement with respect to the head: an uncompensated camera movement of only 1mm causes measurement errors of approximately 5deg. This is particularly important for VOG recordings during "Rapid Head Impulses", a standardized procedure for testing the functional status of the vestibular system: there camera slippage of a few millimeters is almost impossible to prevent. The most successful approach to compensate camera slippage with respect to the head has been utilization of the location of reflections of external illumination sources on the corneal surface. This technique works well when illumination and camera are at a distance that is much larger than the focal length of the camera. When camera and illumination are head-mounted, though, the suitability of this approach has yet to be shown. Using biomechanical simulations of the pupil center as well as of specular reflections of illumination points on the human cornea, we investigate the suitability and the limitations of this approach. In particular, we compare to which extent consideration of the actual corneal shape and slippage path can improve the elimination of camera slippage during VOG recordings, compared to more established approaches like linear or polynomial curves fit to the distance between pupil center and corneal reflections. For practical applications, our compensation scheme is applied to VOG recordings during rapid head impulses. For VOG we use the "EyeSeeCam" system, which can provide 3D eye movements at up to 500 Hz; the actual camera slippage is determined by measurements of 3D head- and camera movement with a "Lukotronic" system; and the results are compared with our compensation scheme, which tries to eliminate the camera slippage using only the information from the video images.

@Other{Platz2008,
Title = {Optimizing video-oculographic (VOG) eye movement recordings of rapid head impulses},
Abstract = {Video-based eye movement recording, often called "Video-Oculography" (VOG), is replacing other techniques as the standard tool for measuring eye movements, for clinical applications as well as for research. Since new types of video cameras now regularly offer sampling rates above 100 Hz, the biggest remaining problem is the artifacts caused by camera movement with respect to the head: an uncompensated camera movement of only 1mm causes measurement errors of approximately 5deg. This is particularly important for VOG recordings during "Rapid Head Impulses", a standardized procedure for testing the functional status of the vestibular system: there camera slippage of a few millimeters is almost impossible to prevent. The most successful approach to compensate camera slippage with respect to the head has been utilization of the location of reflections of external illumination sources on the corneal surface. This technique works well when illumination and camera are at a distance that is much larger than the focal length of the camera. When camera and illumination are head-mounted, though, the suitability of this approach has yet to be shown. Using biomechanical simulations of the pupil center as well as of specular reflections of illumination points on the human cornea, we investigate the suitability and the limitations of this approach. In particular, we compare to which extent consideration of the actual corneal shape and slippage path can improve the elimination of camera slippage during VOG recordings, compared to more established approaches like linear or polynomial curves fit to the distance between pupil center and corneal reflections. For practical applications, our compensation scheme is applied to VOG recordings during rapid head impulses. For VOG we use the "EyeSeeCam" system, which can provide 3D eye movements at up to 500 Hz; the actual camera slippage is determined by measurements of 3D head- and camera movement with a "Lukotronic" system; and the results are compared with our compensation scheme, which tries to eliminate the camera slippage using only the information from the video images.},
Author = {Platz, M. and Scharinger, J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Annual Meeting of the American Society for Neuroscience},
Keywords = {eye, movement, recordings, head, Impulse, eye movements, eye-movements, movements, clinical application, video, Artifacts, vestibular, vestibular system, system, approach, utilization, DISTANCE, simulation, Pupil, center, human, Cornea, shape, linear, compensation, 3D eye movements, results, result},
Pages = {--},
Publisher = {American Society for Neuroscience},
Refid = {6335},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {http://www.sfn.org},
Year = {2008}
}

• M. Platz and T. Haslwanter, “Reducing motion artifacts in video-oculography systems during horizontal rapid head impulses,” in Fh science day 2008, Aachen, 2008, pp. 129-133.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Platz2008a,
Title = {Reducing motion artifacts in Video-Oculography systems during horizontal rapid head impulses},
Author = {Platz, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {FH Science Day 2008},
Year = {2008},
Editor = {Auinger, A. and Engelhardt-Nowitzki, C. and Gumpinger, M. and Hofstadler, H. and Jaeger, A. and Jodlbauer, H. and Kastner, J. and Kindermann, H. and Langer, J. and Lehner, M. and Leindecker, H.C. and Zauner, M.},
Pages = {129--133},
Publisher = {Shaker Verlag},
Keywords = {Artifacts, head, Impulse, motion, system, video-oculography},
Refid = {6329},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• M. Platz and T. Haslwanter, “Diagnoseverbesserung durch verbesserte video-okulographie,” in Forschungsforum der ”sterreichischen fachhochschulen, Aachen, 2008, pp. 14-18.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Platz2008b,
Title = {Diagnoseverbesserung durch verbesserte Video-Okulographie},
Author = {Platz, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Forschungsforum der ”sterreichischen Fachhochschulen},
Year = {2008},
Editor = {Kastner, J.},
Month = mar,
Pages = {14--18},
Publisher = {Shaker Verlag},
Volume = {2},
Refid = {6291},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 2007

• C. J. Bockisch and T. Haslwanter, “Vestibular contribution to the planning of reach trajectories,” Exp.brain res., vol. 182, iss. 3, pp. 387-397, 2007.

Reaching for an object while simultaneously rotating induces Coriolis and centrifugal inertial forces on the arm that require compensatory actions to maintain accuracy. We investigated whether the nervous system uses vestibular signals of head rotation to predict inertial forces. Human subjects reached in darkness to a remembered target 33 cm distant. Subjects were stationary, but experienced a strong vestibular rotation signal. We achieved this by rotating subjects at 360 degrees /s in yaw for 2 min and then stopping, and subjects reached during the ‘post-rotary’ period when the deceleration is interpreted by the vestibular system as a rotation in the opposite direction. Arm trajectories were straight in control trials without a rotary stimulus. With vestibular stimulation, trajectory curvature increased an average of 3 cm in the direction of the vestibular stimulation (e.g., to the right for a rightward yaw stimulus). Vestibular-induced curvature returned rapidly to normal, with an average time constant of 6 s. Movements also became longer as the vestibular stimulus diminished, and returned towards normal length with an average time constant of 5.6 s. In a second experiment we compared reaching with preferred and non-preferred hands, and found that they were similarly affected by vestibular stimulation. The reach curvatures were in the expected direction if the nervous system anticipated and attempted to counteract the presence of Coriolis forces based on the vestibular signals. Similarly, the shorter reaches may have occurred because the nervous system was attempting to compensate for an expected centrifugal force. Since vestibular stimulation also alters the perceived location of targets, vestibular signals probably influence all stages of the sensorimotor pathway transforming the desired goal of a reach into specific motor-unit innervation

@Article{Bockisch2007,
Title = {Vestibular contribution to the planning of reach trajectories},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {2007},
Month = sep,
Number = {3},
Pages = {387--397},
Volume = {182},
Abstract = {Reaching for an object while simultaneously rotating induces Coriolis and centrifugal inertial forces on the arm that require compensatory actions to maintain accuracy. We investigated whether the nervous system uses vestibular signals of head rotation to predict inertial forces. Human subjects reached in darkness to a remembered target 33 cm distant. Subjects were stationary, but experienced a strong vestibular rotation signal. We achieved this by rotating subjects at 360 degrees /s in yaw for 2 min and then stopping, and subjects reached during the 'post-rotary' period when the deceleration is interpreted by the vestibular system as a rotation in the opposite direction. Arm trajectories were straight in control trials without a rotary stimulus. With vestibular stimulation, trajectory curvature increased an average of 3 cm in the direction of the vestibular stimulation (e.g., to the right for a rightward yaw stimulus). Vestibular-induced curvature returned rapidly to normal, with an average time constant of 6 s. Movements also became longer as the vestibular stimulus diminished, and returned towards normal length with an average time constant of 5.6 s. In a second experiment we compared reaching with preferred and non-preferred hands, and found that they were similarly affected by vestibular stimulation. The reach curvatures were in the expected direction if the nervous system anticipated and attempted to counteract the presence of Coriolis forces based on the vestibular signals. Similarly, the shorter reaches may have occurred because the nervous system was attempting to compensate for an expected centrifugal force. Since vestibular stimulation also alters the perceived location of targets, vestibular signals probably influence all stages of the sensorimotor pathway transforming the desired goal of a reach into specific motor-unit innervation},
Address = {Departments of Neurology, Opthalmology, and Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstr. 26, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland, Chris.Bockisch@usz.ch},
Comment = {DA - 20070911 IS - 0014-4819 (Print) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {arm, centrifugal force, control, Coriolis force, Darkness, Deceleration, direction, ENG, force, Hand, head, head rotation, human, human subjects, innervation, movement, movements, Nervous System, Neurology, normal, reaching, rotation, signal, signals, stimulation, Switzerland, system, time constant, trajectory, trial, vestibular, vestibular rotation, vestibular signal, vestibular stimulation, vestibular system, yaw},
Refid = {6228},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:17562026}
}

• A. H. Clarke and T. Haslwanter, “The orientation of listing’s plane in microgravity,” Vision res., vol. 47, iss. 25, pp. 3132-3140, 2007.

The orientation of Listing’s Plane (LP) was examined under one-g and zero-g conditions during parabolic flight. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment. In zero-g the orientation of LP was consistently altered. LP elevation was tilted backwards by approx. 10 degrees (p=0.003). The azimuth angles of the left and right eyes also diverged in zero-g, with a statistically significant change (p=0.04) in the vergence angle between 6.1 degrees and 11.8 degrees . A discernible dissociation in torsional eye position was also observed, which proved to be statistically significant (p=0.03). The thickness of LP was found to be of the order of 1 degrees , and was not significantly altered by the transitions between one-g and zero-g. Additional control experiments involving repeated measurements of LP under normal laboratory conditions demonstrated that the parameters of LP remain stable in the individual. The parabolic flight results demonstrate that in contrast to re-orientation in the one-g gravitational field, the elimination of gravity represents a qualitative change for the vestibular and oculomotor systems. It appears that given the lack of voluntary control of ocular torsion, the tonic otolith afferences are instrumental in the stabilisation of torsional eye position and consequently of Listing’s Plane. The observed torsional divergence also provides support for the so-called otolith asymmetry hypothesis

@Article{Clarke2007,
Title = {The orientation of Listing's Plane in microgravity},
Author = {Clarke, A.H. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Vision Res.},
Year = {2007},
Month = nov,
Number = {25},
Pages = {3132--3140},
Volume = {47},
Abstract = {The orientation of Listing's Plane (LP) was examined under one-g and zero-g conditions during parabolic flight. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment. In zero-g the orientation of LP was consistently altered. LP elevation was tilted backwards by approx. 10 degrees (p=0.003). The azimuth angles of the left and right eyes also diverged in zero-g, with a statistically significant change (p=0.04) in the vergence angle between 6.1 degrees and 11.8 degrees . A discernible dissociation in torsional eye position was also observed, which proved to be statistically significant (p=0.03). The thickness of LP was found to be of the order of 1 degrees , and was not significantly altered by the transitions between one-g and zero-g. Additional control experiments involving repeated measurements of LP under normal laboratory conditions demonstrated that the parameters of LP remain stable in the individual. The parabolic flight results demonstrate that in contrast to re-orientation in the one-g gravitational field, the elimination of gravity represents a qualitative change for the vestibular and oculomotor systems. It appears that given the lack of voluntary control of ocular torsion, the tonic otolith afferences are instrumental in the stabilisation of torsional eye position and consequently of Listing's Plane. The observed torsional divergence also provides support for the so-called otolith asymmetry hypothesis},
Address = {Charite Medical School, Berlin, FRG},
Comment = {DA - 20071113 IS - 0042-6989 (Print) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM},
Keywords = {asymmetry, contrast, control, ENG, eye, eye position, gravity, Listing's plane, microgravity, normal, ocular, ocular torsion, oculomotor, oculomotor system, orientation, otolith, position, result, results, system, torsion, vergence, vestibular},
Refid = {6234},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:17950775}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Measuring eye movements: improved diagnosis through improved technology,” , Aachen, 2007, pp. 212-215.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter2007,
Title = {Measuring Eye Movements: Improved Diagnosis Through Improved Technology},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Year = {2007},
Editor = {Eidenberger, T. and Jodlbauer, H. and Jungwirth, M. and Kastner, J. and Kindermann, H. and Reiter, T. and Selg, M. and Staberhofer, F. and Steiner, W. and Zauner, M.},
Month = oct,
Pages = {212--215},
Publisher = {Shaker Verlag},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {eye, eye movements, eye-movements, movements, movement, diagnosis},
Refid = {6232},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• R. Hoerantner, S. Priglinger, M. Koch, and T. Haslwanter, “A comparison of two different techniques for oculomotor torque reduction,” Acta ophthalmol.scand., vol. 85, iss. 7, pp. 734-738, 2007.

PURPOSE: To compare the results of two different surgical techniques: ‘Cuppers technique’, in which the torque of oculomotor rectus muscles is reduced by suturing the muscle to the globe in the posterior half of the globe; and ‘Y-split recessions’, in which the muscle torque is reduced by Y-splitting the rectus muscles, and reattaching the two halves at an angle to each other. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the outcome of surgery on 100 patients with infantile esotropia. RESULTS: Both techniques show a sufficient reduction of strabismus angle variability, and minimal and maximal strabismus angle. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques achieve satisfactory results. In addition, the Y-split technique allows for accurate control of the muscle torque and requires no access to the posterior half of the eye, which can facilitate the surgical approach. For a reduction in muscle torque, the Y-split recession is a good alternative to the established Cuppers technique

@Article{Hoerantner2007,
Title = {A comparison of two different techniques for oculomotor torque reduction},
Author = {Hoerantner, R. and Priglinger, S. and Koch, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Acta Ophthalmol.Scand.},
Year = {2007},
Month = nov,
Number = {7},
Pages = {734--738},
Volume = {85},
Abstract = {PURPOSE: To compare the results of two different surgical techniques: 'Cuppers technique', in which the torque of oculomotor rectus muscles is reduced by suturing the muscle to the globe in the posterior half of the globe; and 'Y-split recessions', in which the muscle torque is reduced by Y-splitting the rectus muscles, and reattaching the two halves at an angle to each other. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the outcome of surgery on 100 patients with infantile esotropia. RESULTS: Both techniques show a sufficient reduction of strabismus angle variability, and minimal and maximal strabismus angle. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques achieve satisfactory results. In addition, the Y-split technique allows for accurate control of the muscle torque and requires no access to the posterior half of the eye, which can facilitate the surgical approach. For a reduction in muscle torque, the Y-split recession is a good alternative to the established Cuppers technique},
Address = {Department of Ophthalmology, Good Sisters Hospital, Ried, Austria. robert.hoerantner@bhs.at},
Comment = {DA - 20071019 IS - 1395-3907 (Print) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM},
Keywords = {analysis, approach, Austria, control, ENG, esotropia, eye, method, methods, muscle, muscles, oculomotor, Ophthalmology, outcome, patients, result, results, strabismus, surgery, surgical, surgical approach, Torque},
Refid = {6239},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:17506775}
}

• R. Hoerantner and T. Haslwanter, “Physiological effects of different absorption properties of intraocular lenses,” , Aachen, 2007, pp. 209-211.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Hoerantner2007a,
Title = {Physiological Effects of Different Absorption Properties of Intraocular Lenses},
Author = {Hoerantner, R. and Haslwanter, T.},
Year = {2007},
Editor = {Eidenberger, T. and Jodlbauer, H. and Jungwirth, M. and Kastner, J. and Kindermann, H. and Reiter, T. and Selg, M. and Staberhofer, F. and Steiner, W. and Zauner, M.},
Month = oct,
Pages = {209--211},
Publisher = {Shaker Verlag},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {effect, Lenses},
Refid = {6231},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• R. Hoerantner, T. Kaltofen, S. Priglinger, C. M. Fock, M. Buchberger, and T. Haslwanter, “Model-based improvements in the treatment of patients with strabismus and axial high myopia,” Invest.ophthalmol.vis.sci., vol. 48, iss. 3, pp. 1133-1138, 2007.

PURPOSE: Eye motility disorders with axial high myopia and an enlarged globe are often characterized by a hypotropia of the affected eye, usually referred to as heavy-eye syndrome. Based on an intuitive interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images, the cause of the hypotropia has typically been assigned to the rectus muscles. In this study, the hypothesis that the oblique muscles play an important role in the underlying biomechanical disorder of this type of strabismus was investigated. METHODS: The hypothesis was tested by (1) a retrospective analysis of surgical results in one patient with unilateral axial high myopia; and (2) MR images of orbital tissues in two further patients with unilateral axial high myopia. RESULTS: MR images demonstrated a pattern of extraocular muscle path displacements similar to those described previously, but also a uniform decrease in the cross-sectional area of the inferior oblique muscles. Computer modeling required decreased inferior oblique contractility in addition to displaced extraocular muscle paths to recreate the observed motility pattern accurately. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with axial high myopia regularly show a reduction in the diameter of the inferior oblique. The resultant reduction in muscle-strength is important for the correct explanation of this complex eye movement disorder

@Article{Hoerantner2007b,
Title = {Model-based improvements in the treatment of patients with strabismus and axial high myopia},
Author = {Hoerantner, R. and Kaltofen, T. and Priglinger, S. and Fock, C.M. and Buchberger, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci.},
Year = {2007},
Month = mar,
Number = {3},
Pages = {1133--1138},
Volume = {48},
Abstract = {PURPOSE: Eye motility disorders with axial high myopia and an enlarged globe are often characterized by a hypotropia of the affected eye, usually referred to as heavy-eye syndrome. Based on an intuitive interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images, the cause of the hypotropia has typically been assigned to the rectus muscles. In this study, the hypothesis that the oblique muscles play an important role in the underlying biomechanical disorder of this type of strabismus was investigated. METHODS: The hypothesis was tested by (1) a retrospective analysis of surgical results in one patient with unilateral axial high myopia; and (2) MR images of orbital tissues in two further patients with unilateral axial high myopia. RESULTS: MR images demonstrated a pattern of extraocular muscle path displacements similar to those described previously, but also a uniform decrease in the cross-sectional area of the inferior oblique muscles. Computer modeling required decreased inferior oblique contractility in addition to displaced extraocular muscle paths to recreate the observed motility pattern accurately. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with axial high myopia regularly show a reduction in the diameter of the inferior oblique. The resultant reduction in muscle-strength is important for the correct explanation of this complex eye movement disorder},
Address = {Department of Ophthalmology, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern (Good Sisters Hospital), Ried, Austria},
Comment = {DA - 20070227 IS - 0146-0404 (Print) LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {analysis, area, Austria, complex, disorders, displacement, ENG, Extraocular, eye, inferior oblique muscle, magnetic resonance, method, methods, modeling, motility, movement, movement disorder, MR, muscle, muscles, myopia, Ophthalmology, patients, result, results, strabismus, studies, surgical, syndrome, treatment, unilateral},
Refid = {6184},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:17325156}
}

### 2006

• T. Haslwanter, C. Kitzmueller, and M. Scheubmayr, “Simulation of effects of horizontal camera slippage on corneal reflections,” in Eye tracking research & applications, 2006, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter2006,
Title = {Simulation of Effects of Horizontal Camera Slippage on Corneal Reflections},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Kitzmueller, C. and Scheubmayr, M.},
Booktitle = {Eye Tracking Research \& Applications},
Year = {2006},
Pages = {--},
Keywords = {simulation, effect, eye, eye tracking, tracking},
Refid = {6085},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, M. Aichinger, M. Stoettinger, R. Jaeger, V. Keppler, and S. Ramat, “Putting the head on the neck: a realistic biomechanic model of human head-neck mechanics,” in International mediterranean modelling multiconference, Barcelona, 2006, pp. 625-628.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter2006a,
Title = {Putting the head on the neck: a realistic biomechanic model of human head-neck mechanics},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Aichinger, M. and Stoettinger, M. and Jaeger, R. and Keppler, V. and Ramat, S.},
Booktitle = {International Mediterranean Modelling Multiconference},
Year = {2006},
Editor = {Bruzzone, A.G. and Guasch, A. and Angel Piera, M. and Rozenblit, J.},
Pages = {625--628},
Publisher = {LogiSim},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {head, neck, model, human, modelling},
Refid = {6084},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• C. Kitzmueller, M. Scheubmayr, and T. Haslwanter, “Simulation of camera slippage compensation using corneal reflections [submitted],” Ieee trans.biomed.eng, p. –, 2006.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Kitzmueller2006,
Title = {Simulation of Camera Slippage Compensation Using Corneal Reflections [submitted]},
Author = {Kitzmueller, C. and Scheubmayr, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {IEEE Trans.Biomed.Eng},
Year = {2006},
Pages = {--},
Keywords = {simulation, compensation},
Refid = {5972},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• L. Pfenninger, K. Landau, T. Haslwanter, R. Hoerantner, and O. Bergamin, “Pre- and postoperative search coil recordings in patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy,” in Arvo (association for research and ophthalmology), annual meeting, 2006, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Pfenninger2006,
Title = {Pre- and Postoperative Search Coil Recordings in Patients with Unilateral Trochlear Nerve Palsy},
Author = {Pfenninger, L. and Landau, K. and Haslwanter, T. and Hoerantner, R. and Bergamin, O.},
Booktitle = {ARVO (Association for Research and Ophthalmology), Annual Meeting},
Year = {2006},
Pages = {--},
Keywords = {search coil, recordings, patients, unilateral, trochlear nerve, nerve, palsy, Ophthalmology},
Refid = {5971},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 2005

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, and T. Haslwanter, “Human 3-d avor with and without otolith stimulation,” Exp.brain res., vol. 161, iss. 3, pp. 358-367, 2005.

We describe in detail the frequency response of the human three-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular response (3-D aVOR) over a frequency range of 0.05-1 Hz. Gain and phase of the human aVOR were determined for passive head rotations in the dark, with the rotation axis either aligned with or perpendicular to the direction of gravity (earth-vertical or earth-horizontal). In the latter case, the oscillations dynamically stimulated both the otolith organs and the semi-circular canals. We conducted experiments in pitch and yaw, and compared the results with previously-published roll data. Regardless of the axis of rotation and the orientation of the subject, the gain in aVOR increased with frequency to about 0.3 Hz, and was approximately constant from 0.3 to 1 Hz. The aVOR gain during pitch and yaw rotations was larger than during roll rotations. Otolith and canal cues combined differently depending upon the axis of rotation: for torsional and pitch rotations, aVOR gain was higher with otolith input; for yaw rotations the aVOR was not affected by otolith stimulation. There was a phase lead in all three dimensions for frequencies below 0.3 Hz when only the canals were stimulated. For roll and pitch rotations this phase lead vanished with dynamic otolith stimulation. In contrast, the horizontal phase showed no improvement with additional otolith input during yaw rotations. The lack of a significant otolith contribution to the yaw aVOR was observed when subjects were supine, prone or lying on their sides. Our results confirm studies with less-natural stimuli (off-vertical axis rotation) that the otoliths contribute a head-rotation signal to the aVOR. However, the magnitude of the contribution depends on the axis of rotation, with the gain in otolith-canal cross-coupling being smallest for yaw axis rotations. This could be because, in humans, typical yaw head movements will stimulate the otoliths to a much lesser extent then typical pitch and roll head movements

@Article{Bockisch2005,
Title = {Human 3-D aVOR with and without otolith stimulation},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {2005},
Month = mar,
Number = {3},
Pages = {358--367},
Volume = {161},
Abstract = {We describe in detail the frequency response of the human three-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular response (3-D aVOR) over a frequency range of 0.05-1 Hz. Gain and phase of the human aVOR were determined for passive head rotations in the dark, with the rotation axis either aligned with or perpendicular to the direction of gravity (earth-vertical or earth-horizontal). In the latter case, the oscillations dynamically stimulated both the otolith organs and the semi-circular canals. We conducted experiments in pitch and yaw, and compared the results with previously-published roll data. Regardless of the axis of rotation and the orientation of the subject, the gain in aVOR increased with frequency to about 0.3 Hz, and was approximately constant from 0.3 to 1 Hz. The aVOR gain during pitch and yaw rotations was larger than during roll rotations. Otolith and canal cues combined differently depending upon the axis of rotation: for torsional and pitch rotations, aVOR gain was higher with otolith input; for yaw rotations the aVOR was not affected by otolith stimulation. There was a phase lead in all three dimensions for frequencies below 0.3 Hz when only the canals were stimulated. For roll and pitch rotations this phase lead vanished with dynamic otolith stimulation. In contrast, the horizontal phase showed no improvement with additional otolith input during yaw rotations. The lack of a significant otolith contribution to the yaw aVOR was observed when subjects were supine, prone or lying on their sides. Our results confirm studies with less-natural stimuli (off-vertical axis rotation) that the otoliths contribute a head-rotation signal to the aVOR. However, the magnitude of the contribution depends on the axis of rotation, with the gain in otolith-canal cross-coupling being smallest for yaw axis rotations. This could be because, in humans, typical yaw head movements will stimulate the otoliths to a much lesser extent then typical pitch and roll head movements},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstr. 26, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland, Chris.Bockisch@usz.ch},
Comment = {DA - 20050223 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {AVOR, canal, canals, contrast, cross coupling, cross-coupling, Cues, data, direction, ENG, frequency response, gain, gravity, head, head movement, head movements, head rotation, human, humans, movement, movements, Neurology, off-vertical axis rotation, orientation, oscillation, oscillations, otolith, otolith canal, otolith input, otolith organs, otolith stimulation, Otoliths, passive head rotation, phase, pitch, pitch rotation, response, result, results, roll, rotation, rotations, semi-circular canal, semi-circular canals, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, signal, stimulation, studies, three dimensional, three-dimensional, vestibulo-ocular, yaw},
Refid = {5871},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15490132}
}

• M. Buchberger, T. Kaltofen, R. Hoerantner, S. Priglinger, and T. Haslwanter, “Improved simulations of the mechanics of the oculomotor plant [submitted],” Invest.ophthalmol.vis.sci., p. –, 2005.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Buchberger2005,
Title = {Improved Simulations of the Mechanics of the Oculomotor Plant [submitted]},
Author = {Buchberger, M. and Kaltofen, T. and Hoerantner, R. and Priglinger, S. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci.},
Year = {2005},
Pages = {--},
Keywords = {simulation, oculomotor, oculomotor plant},
Refid = {5880},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, M. Buchberger, T. Kaltofen, R. Hoerantner, and S. Priglinger, “See++: a biomechanical model of the oculomotor plant,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 1039, pp. 9-14, 2005.

The consequences of changes in the oculomotor system on the three-dimensional eye movements are difficult to grasp. Although changes to the rectus muscles can still be approximately understood with simplified geometric models, this approach no longer works with the oblique muscles. It is shown how SEE++, a biomechanical model of the oculomotor plant that was built on the ideas of Miller and Robinson (1984) can improve the understanding of the effects of changes to the oblique eye muscles. By displaying only selected muscles, and by illustrating the relative contribution of these muscles through color-coding the bulb surface, the functional properties of the oblique muscles can be presented in a much clearer way. Investigating the effects of a hyperactive inferior oblique muscle shows that this type of model can help to clarify the functional cause of a pathology, which can otherwise be unclear, even for common pathologies

@Article{Haslwanter2005,
Title = {SEE++: A Biomechanical Model of the Oculomotor Plant},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Buchberger, M. and Kaltofen, T. and Hoerantner, R. and Priglinger, S.},
Year = {2005},
Month = apr,
Pages = {9--14},
Volume = {1039},
Abstract = {The consequences of changes in the oculomotor system on the three-dimensional eye movements are difficult to grasp. Although changes to the rectus muscles can still be approximately understood with simplified geometric models, this approach no longer works with the oblique muscles. It is shown how SEE++, a biomechanical model of the oculomotor plant that was built on the ideas of Miller and Robinson (1984) can improve the understanding of the effects of changes to the oblique eye muscles. By displaying only selected muscles, and by illustrating the relative contribution of these muscles through color-coding the bulb surface, the functional properties of the oblique muscles can be presented in a much clearer way. Investigating the effects of a hyperactive inferior oblique muscle shows that this type of model can help to clarify the functional cause of a pathology, which can otherwise be unclear, even for common pathologies},
Address = {UAR-Medical-Informatics, Softwarepark Hagenberg, Hauptstrasse 99, A-4232 Hagenberg, Austria. thomas.haslwanter@uar.at},
Comment = {DA - 20050413 IS - 0077-8923 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
not_rev},
Keywords = {approach, Austria, effect, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye muscles, eye-movements, inferior oblique muscle, model, models, movement, movements, muscle, muscles, oculomotor, oculomotor plant, oculomotor system, pathology, system, three dimensional, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements},
Refid = {5913},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15826957}
}

• F. R. Lin, A. A. Migliaccio, T. Haslwanter, L. B. Minor, and J. P. Carey, “Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gains correlate with vertigo control after intratympanic gentamicin treatment for meniere’s disease,” Ann.otol.rhinol.laryngol., vol. 114, iss. 10, pp. 777-785, 2005.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to determine whether angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) gains correlated with vertigo control after intratympanic gentamicin treatment for Meniere’s disease. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 18 subjects with unilateral Meniere’s disease treated with intratympanic gentamicin injection and followed all subjects for 1 year. We measured the gain of the aVOR elicited by rapid rotary head thrusts in each of the canal planes for each subject before and after treatment with intratympanic gentamicin by using magnetic search coils to record eye movements. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 11 subjects ("single-treatment group"; 61%) had control of their vertigo with a single gentamicin injection. The remaining 7 subjects ("multiple-treatment group"; 39%) experienced recurrent vertigo that required a second injection of gentamicin at a mean of 6 months after the first treatment. The 11 subjects in the single-treatment group had significantly greater reduction of labyrinthine function after the first treatment, as measured by change in ipsilateral horizontal canal gain, than did the 7 subjects with vertigo recurrence. Changes in caloric asymmetry did not correlate with vertigo control. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that successful treatment of Meniere’s disease is closely related to attenuation of semicircular canal function as measured by horizontal canal aVOR gains

@Article{Lin2005,
Title = {Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gains correlate with vertigo control after intratympanic gentamicin treatment for Meniere's disease},
Author = {Lin, F.R. and Migliaccio, A.A. and Haslwanter, T. and Minor, L.B. and Carey, J.P.},
Journal = {Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol.},
Year = {2005},
Month = oct,
Number = {10},
Pages = {777--785},
Volume = {114},
Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to determine whether angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) gains correlated with vertigo control after intratympanic gentamicin treatment for Meniere's disease. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 18 subjects with unilateral Meniere's disease treated with intratympanic gentamicin injection and followed all subjects for 1 year. We measured the gain of the aVOR elicited by rapid rotary head thrusts in each of the canal planes for each subject before and after treatment with intratympanic gentamicin by using magnetic search coils to record eye movements. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 11 subjects ("single-treatment group"; 61%) had control of their vertigo with a single gentamicin injection. The remaining 7 subjects ("multiple-treatment group"; 39%) experienced recurrent vertigo that required a second injection of gentamicin at a mean of 6 months after the first treatment. The 11 subjects in the single-treatment group had significantly greater reduction of labyrinthine function after the first treatment, as measured by change in ipsilateral horizontal canal gain, than did the 7 subjects with vertigo recurrence. Changes in caloric asymmetry did not correlate with vertigo control. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that successful treatment of Meniere's disease is closely related to attenuation of semicircular canal function as measured by horizontal canal aVOR gains},
Address = {Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA},
Comment = {DA - 20051115 IS - 0003-4894 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - AIM SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {asymmetry, AVOR, caloric, canal, canal planes, control, disease, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye-movements, function, gain, gentamicin, gentamicin treatment, head, horizontal canal, intratympanic, intratympanic gentamicin, ipsilateral, labyrinthine, magnetic search coil, Meniere, Meniere's, Meniere's disease, method, methods, movement, movements, neck, Prospective Studies, recurrence, recurrent, Reflex, result, results, search coil, semicircular canal, studies, surgery, treatment, unilateral, Unilateral Meniere's disease, vertigo, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {5930},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:16285268}
}

### 2004

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, K. Hess, and T. Haslwanter, “Enhanced smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with bilateral vestibular deficits,” Neuroreport, vol. 15, iss. 17, pp. 2617-2620, 2004.

Patients with bilateral vestibular deficits experience unsteady gait and oscillopsia that can reduce the quality of life, though many patients adapt remarkably well and lead mostly normal lives. One source of adaptation could be the ability of sensory-motor systems to compensate for the vestibular loss by adaptive enhancement of their performance. We studied smooth-pursuit eye movements in five patients and six healthy control subjects using a step-ramp paradigm. Eye movements were measured with scleral search coils. Patients showed open- and closed-loop pursuit gains that were about 9% higher than controls. We suggest that the challenge of living with a deficient vestibular system caused an enhancement in the pursuit system, which contributes to the patient’s overall compensation

@Article{Bockisch2004,
Title = {Enhanced smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with bilateral vestibular deficits},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Hess, K. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {NeuroReport},
Year = {2004},
Month = dec,
Number = {17},
Pages = {2617--2620},
Volume = {15},
Abstract = {Patients with bilateral vestibular deficits experience unsteady gait and oscillopsia that can reduce the quality of life, though many patients adapt remarkably well and lead mostly normal lives. One source of adaptation could be the ability of sensory-motor systems to compensate for the vestibular loss by adaptive enhancement of their performance. We studied smooth-pursuit eye movements in five patients and six healthy control subjects using a step-ramp paradigm. Eye movements were measured with scleral search coils. Patients showed open- and closed-loop pursuit gains that were about 9% higher than controls. We suggest that the challenge of living with a deficient vestibular system caused an enhancement in the pursuit system, which contributes to the patient's overall compensation},
Address = {1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstr. 26, CH-8091 Zurich2Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 20041130 IS - 0959-4965 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {adaptation, adaptive, compensation, control, deficits, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye-movements, gain, gait, living, loss, movement, movements, Neurology, normal, oscillopsia, patients, performance, pursuit, pursuit eye movement, pursuit eye movements, search coil, sensory-motor, smooth pursuit, smooth pursuit eye movement, smooth pursuit eye movements, smooth-pursuit eye movements, system, vestibular, vestibular deficits, vestibular loss, vestibular system},
Refid = {5864},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15570163}
}

• T. Haslwanter, R. Hoerantner, and S. Priglinger, “Reduction of ocular muscle power by splitting of the rectus muscle i: biomechanics,” Br.j.ophthalmol., vol. 88, iss. 11, pp. 1403-1408, 2004.

BACKGROUND/AIM: Based on mechanical considerations, the authors have developed a new approach to weakening oculomotor muscles. They present the biomechanical considerations that have encouraged them to explore this approach, and compare it with existing surgical techniques. Results of application to patients are given in the companion paper, and do not require an analytical understanding of the underlying mechanics. METHODS: Using a simple biomechanical model for the oculomotor system and vector component analysis, the eye position dependent torque exerted by extraocular muscles on the eyeball was investigated. This model was applied to the healthy eye, as well as to different surgical procedures (Cuppers’ Fadenoperation, Y-split muscle recessions, botulinum toxin, and simple muscle recessions). CONCLUSION: These investigations suggest that a Y-split muscle recession is a simple and efficient way to weaken ocular rectus muscles. Compared to alternative surgical procedures, undesired radial forces that can lead to post-surgical complications can be kept to a minimum. The authors further speculate that their good results may in part be because of possible preservation of proprioceptive inputs from the insertion of the extraocular muscle

@Article{Haslwanter2004,
Title = {Reduction of ocular muscle power by splitting of the rectus muscle I: biomechanics},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Hoerantner, R. and Priglinger, S.},
Journal = {Br.J.Ophthalmol.},
Year = {2004},
Month = nov,
Number = {11},
Pages = {1403--1408},
Volume = {88},
Abstract = {BACKGROUND/AIM: Based on mechanical considerations, the authors have developed a new approach to weakening oculomotor muscles. They present the biomechanical considerations that have encouraged them to explore this approach, and compare it with existing surgical techniques. Results of application to patients are given in the companion paper, and do not require an analytical understanding of the underlying mechanics. METHODS: Using a simple biomechanical model for the oculomotor system and vector component analysis, the eye position dependent torque exerted by extraocular muscles on the eyeball was investigated. This model was applied to the healthy eye, as well as to different surgical procedures (Cuppers' Fadenoperation, Y-split muscle recessions, botulinum toxin, and simple muscle recessions). CONCLUSION: These investigations suggest that a Y-split muscle recession is a simple and efficient way to weaken ocular rectus muscles. Compared to alternative surgical procedures, undesired radial forces that can lead to post-surgical complications can be kept to a minimum. The authors further speculate that their good results may in part be because of possible preservation of proprioceptive inputs from the insertion of the extraocular muscle},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. thomas.haslwanter@uar.at},
Comment = {DA - 20041018 IS - 0007-1161 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {analysis, approach, Biomechanics, botulinum toxin, complications, ENG, Extraocular, extraocular muscles, eye, eye position, force, humans, method, methods, minimum, model, Models,Biological, muscle, muscles, Neurology, ocular, oculomotor, Oculomotor Muscles, oculomotor system, Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures, patients, physiology, position, result, results, strabismus, Stress,Mechanical, surgery, surgical, system, Torque, toxin},
Refid = {5869},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15489482}
}

• R. Hoerantner, S. Priglinger, and T. Haslwanter, “Reduction of ocular muscle torque by splitting of the rectus muscle ii: technique and results,” Br.j.ophthalmol., vol. 88, iss. 11, pp. 1409-1413, 2004.

AIM: To present the results of a new technique that the authors have developed to weaken the extraocular muscles. The biomechanics of this technique, which is termed "Y-split recession," are given in the companion paper. METHODS: A retrospective study, testing the effects of a new surgical technique on strabismus, nystagmus, and visual acuity. 228 patients (aged 6.8 (SD 6.0) years) with variable angle strabismus and nystagmus were treated by splitting and detaching two rectus muscles, and re-attaching the two halves at an angle of about 65 degrees to each other. Subjects were examined with the usual orthoptic tests immediately after the operation, and up to 96 months later. RESULTS: The operation reduced the strabismus, eliminated or weakened the nystagmus in primary position, and improved binocular vision and the development of visual acuity. Only minor side effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The Y-split recession can be used to reduce the torque for extraocular rectus muscles, and provides an alternative to "Cuppers Fadenoperation," recession, and similar procedures

@Article{Hoerantner2004,
Title = {Reduction of ocular muscle torque by splitting of the rectus muscle II: technique and results},
Author = {Hoerantner, R. and Priglinger, S. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Br.J.Ophthalmol.},
Year = {2004},
Month = nov,
Number = {11},
Pages = {1409--1413},
Volume = {88},
Abstract = {AIM: To present the results of a new technique that the authors have developed to weaken the extraocular muscles. The biomechanics of this technique, which is termed "Y-split recession," are given in the companion paper. METHODS: A retrospective study, testing the effects of a new surgical technique on strabismus, nystagmus, and visual acuity. 228 patients (aged 6.8 (SD 6.0) years) with variable angle strabismus and nystagmus were treated by splitting and detaching two rectus muscles, and re-attaching the two halves at an angle of about 65 degrees to each other. Subjects were examined with the usual orthoptic tests immediately after the operation, and up to 96 months later. RESULTS: The operation reduced the strabismus, eliminated or weakened the nystagmus in primary position, and improved binocular vision and the development of visual acuity. Only minor side effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The Y-split recession can be used to reduce the torque for extraocular rectus muscles, and provides an alternative to "Cuppers Fadenoperation," recession, and similar procedures},
Address = {Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Bruder Linz, Austria},
Comment = {DA - 20041018 IS - 0007-1161 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Austria, binocular, binocular vision, Biomechanics, child, Child,Preschool, development, effect, ENG, Extraocular, extraocular muscles, humans, Infant, method, methods, Middle Aged, muscle, muscles, nystagmus, Nystagmus,Pathologic, ocular, Oculomotor Muscles, Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures, patients, physiology, physiopathology, position, result, results, Retrospective Studies, side effects, strabismus, Stress,Mechanical, studies, surgery, surgical, test, tests, Torque, Treatment Outcome, vision, Vision,Binocular, visual, visual acuity},
Refid = {5868},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15489483}
}

• R. Jaeger, A. V. Kondrachuk, and T. Haslwanter, “The distribution of otolith polarization vectors in mammals: a model based interpretation of single cell recordings [under preparation],” J vestib res, p. –, 2004.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Jaeger2004,
Title = {The distribution of otolith polarization vectors in mammals: A model based interpretation of single cell recordings [under preparation]},
Author = {Jaeger, R. and Kondrachuk, A.V. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {J Vestib Res},
Year = {2004},
Pages = {--},
Keywords = {cell, mammal, Mammals, model, otolith, recordings, single cell},
Refid = {5844},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• R. Jaeger and T. Haslwanter, “Otolith responses to dynamical stimuli: results of a numerical investigation,” Biol.cybern., vol. 90, iss. 3, pp. 165-175, 2004.

To investigate the dynamic effects of external forces on the displacement of the otolith membrane and subsequent neuronal responses of otoliths, we performed numerical analyses of otolith membrane displacements. In these studies we included the full geometry of the human otolith maculae, including their 3D curvature. The first part focuses on mechanical aspects of the otolith membrane. While it was found that the mechanical coupling of distant parts of the otolith membrane is only weak, these simulations indicate that curvature may have considerable local effects on displacements. They further suggest that the movements of the otoconia, embedded in the interotoconial matrix, show a resonance in a range between 100 and 2000 Hz. In the second part of the article we also investigate the tonic-phasic responses in the vestibular nerve emanating from hair cells in the striola region. Small head tilts away from head upright position are used. The simulations indicate that the direction of head tilt is coded in characteristic response patterns along the striola

@Article{Jaeger2004a,
Title = {Otolith responses to dynamical stimuli: results of a numerical investigation},
Author = {Jaeger, R. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Biol.Cybern.},
Year = {2004},
Month = mar,
Number = {3},
Pages = {165--175},
Volume = {90},
Abstract = {To investigate the dynamic effects of external forces on the displacement of the otolith membrane and subsequent neuronal responses of otoliths, we performed numerical analyses of otolith membrane displacements. In these studies we included the full geometry of the human otolith maculae, including their 3D curvature. The first part focuses on mechanical aspects of the otolith membrane. While it was found that the mechanical coupling of distant parts of the otolith membrane is only weak, these simulations indicate that curvature may have considerable local effects on displacements. They further suggest that the movements of the otoconia, embedded in the interotoconial matrix, show a resonance in a range between 100 and 2000 Hz. In the second part of the article we also investigate the tonic-phasic responses in the vestibular nerve emanating from hair cells in the striola region. Small head tilts away from head upright position are used. The simulations indicate that the direction of head tilt is coded in characteristic response patterns along the striola},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasse 26, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland. rudi_jaeger@web.de},
Comment = {DA - 20040330 IS - 0340-1200 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {cell, cells, comparative study, Computer Simulation, cytology, direction, displacement, effect, ENG, force, hair, hair cell, hair cells, head, head movements, Head tilt, human, in vitro, maculae, matrix, methods, Models,Neurological, movement, movements, nerve, Neurology, neurons, Nonlinear Dynamics, Nystagmus,Optokinetic, otoconia, otolith, Otolithic Membrane, Otoliths, patterns, Physical Stimulation, physiology, position, response, RESPONSES, result, results, Saccule and Utricle, Signal Detection (Psychology), simulation, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, tilt, vestibular, vestibular nerve, vestibular nuclei, vestibular-nerve},
Refid = {5827},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15052480}
}

• K. Schreiber and T. Haslwanter, “Improving calibration of 3-d video oculography systems,” Ieee trans.biomed.eng, vol. 51, iss. 4, pp. 676-679, 2004.

Eye movement recordings with video-based techniques have become very popular, as long as they are restricted to the horizontal and vertical movements of the eye. Reliable measurement of the torsional component of eye movements, which is especially important in the diagnosis and investigation of pathologies, has remained a coveted goal. One of the main reasons is unresolved technical difficulties in the analysis of video-based images of the eye. Based on simulations, we present solutions to two of the primary problems: a robust and reliable calibration of horizontal and vertical eye movement recordings, and the extraction of suitable iris patterns for the determination of the torsional eye position component

@Article{Schreiber2004,
Title = {Improving calibration of 3-D video oculography systems},
Author = {Schreiber, K. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {IEEE Trans.Biomed.Eng},
Year = {2004},
Month = apr,
Number = {4},
Pages = {676--679},
Volume = {51},
Abstract = {Eye movement recordings with video-based techniques have become very popular, as long as they are restricted to the horizontal and vertical movements of the eye. Reliable measurement of the torsional component of eye movements, which is especially important in the diagnosis and investigation of pathologies, has remained a coveted goal. One of the main reasons is unresolved technical difficulties in the analysis of video-based images of the eye. Based on simulations, we present solutions to two of the primary problems: a robust and reliable calibration of horizontal and vertical eye movement recordings, and the extraction of suitable iris patterns for the determination of the torsional eye position component},
Address = {School of Optometry, University of California at Berkeley, 360 Minor Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-2020, USA. schreiber@genista.de},
Comment = {DA - 20040409 IS - 0018-9294 LA - eng PT - Evaluation Studies PT - Journal Article PT - Validation Studies SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Algorithms, analysis, Calibration, comparative study, determination, diagnosis, ENG, evaluation, Evaluation Studies, eye, eye movements, eye position, eye-movements, human, Image Enhancement, Image Interpretation,Computer-Assisted, Imaging,Three-Dimensional, instrumentation, Iris, methods, Models,Biological, motion, movement, movements, pathology, patterns, physiology, position, recordings, Reproducibility of Results, rotation, Sensitivity and Specificity, simulation, Solutions, standards, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, system, vertical, video, Video Recording, video-oculography},
Refid = {5828},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:15072222}
}

• K. P. Weber, K. Landau, A. Palla, T. Haslwanter, and D. Straumann, “Ocular rotation axes during dynamic bielschowsky head-tilt testing in unilateral trochlear nerve palsy,” Invest.ophthalmol.vis.sci., vol. 45, iss. 2, pp. 455-465, 2004.

PURPOSE: To explain the positive Bielschowsky head-tilt (BHT) sign in unilateral trochlear nerve palsy (uTNP) by the kinematics of three-dimensional eye rotations. METHODS: Twelve patients with uTNP monocularly fixed on targets on a Hess screen were oscillated (+/- 35 degrees, 0.3 Hz) about the roll axis on a motorized turntable (dynamic BHT). Three-dimensional eye movements were recorded with dual search coils. Normal data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. RESULTS: The rotation axis of the viewing paretic or unaffected eye was nearly parallel to the line of sight. The rotation axis of the covered fellow eye, however, was tilted inward relative to the other axis. This convergence of axes increased with gaze toward the unaffected side. Over entire cycles of head roll, the rotation axis of either eye remained relatively stable in both the viewing and covered conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with uTNP, circular gaze trajectories of the covered paretic or unaffected eye during dynamic BHT are a direct consequence of the nasal deviation of the rotation axis from the line of sight. This, in turn, is a geometrical result of decreased force by the superior oblique muscle (SO) of the covered paretic eye or, according to Hering’s law, increased force parallel to the paretic SO in the covered unaffected eye. The horizontal incomitance of rotation axes along horizontal eye positions can be explained by the same mechanism

@Article{Weber2004,
Title = {Ocular rotation axes during dynamic Bielschowsky head-tilt testing in unilateral trochlear nerve palsy},
Author = {Weber, K.P. and Landau, K. and Palla, A. and Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D.},
Journal = {Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci.},
Year = {2004},
Month = feb,
Number = {2},
Pages = {455--465},
Volume = {45},
Abstract = {PURPOSE: To explain the positive Bielschowsky head-tilt (BHT) sign in unilateral trochlear nerve palsy (uTNP) by the kinematics of three-dimensional eye rotations. METHODS: Twelve patients with uTNP monocularly fixed on targets on a Hess screen were oscillated (+/- 35 degrees, 0.3 Hz) about the roll axis on a motorized turntable (dynamic BHT). Three-dimensional eye movements were recorded with dual search coils. Normal data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. RESULTS: The rotation axis of the viewing paretic or unaffected eye was nearly parallel to the line of sight. The rotation axis of the covered fellow eye, however, was tilted inward relative to the other axis. This convergence of axes increased with gaze toward the unaffected side. Over entire cycles of head roll, the rotation axis of either eye remained relatively stable in both the viewing and covered conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with uTNP, circular gaze trajectories of the covered paretic or unaffected eye during dynamic BHT are a direct consequence of the nasal deviation of the rotation axis from the line of sight. This, in turn, is a geometrical result of decreased force by the superior oblique muscle (SO) of the covered paretic eye or, according to Hering's law, increased force parallel to the paretic SO in the covered unaffected eye. The horizontal incomitance of rotation axes along horizontal eye positions can be explained by the same mechanism},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 20040127 IS - 0146-0404 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {convergence, data, dual search coil, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, eye-movements, force, Gaze, head, head roll, Head tilt, Hering's law, kinematic, kinematics, mechanism, method, methods, movement, movements, muscle, nerve, Neurology, normal, ocular, palsy, patients, position, result, results, roll, rotation, rotations, search coil, superior oblique, superior oblique muscle, three dimensional, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements, trajectory, trochlear nerve, unilateral},
Refid = {5798},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:14744885}
}

### 2003

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, M. R. Duersteler, and T. Haslwanter, “The human 3d avor with and without otolith stimulation,” , Washington DC, 2003, p. Program No. 268.10–.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Bockisch2003,
Title = {The human 3D AVOR with and without otolith stimulation},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Duersteler, M.R. and Haslwanter, T.},
Year = {2003},
Number = {2003 Abstract Viewer},
Pages = {Program No. 268.10--},
Publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {human, AVOR, otolith, otolith stimulation, stimulation},
Refid = {5754},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, and T. Haslwanter, “The human 3d avor with and without otolith stimulation.,” Physiology and disorders of oculomotor and vestibular control.meeting in honour of ulrich buettner, p. –, 2003.
[BibTeX]
@Other{Bockisch2003a,
Title = {The human 3D aVOR with and without otolith stimulation.},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Journal = {Physiology and disorders of oculomotor and vestibular control.Meeting in honour of Ulrich Buettner},
Keywords = {AVOR, human, otolith, otolith stimulation, stimulation},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {5110},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Year = {2003}
}

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, and T. Haslwanter, “Eye movements during multiaxis whole-body rotations,” J.neurophysiol., vol. 89, pp. 355-366, 2003.
[BibTeX] [Abstract]

The semi-circular canals and the otolith organs both contribute to gaze stabilization during head movement. We investigated how these sensory signals interact when they provide conflicting information about head orientation in space. Human subjects were reoriented 90ø in pitch or roll during long-duration, constant-velocity rotation about the earth-vertical axis while we measured three-dimensional eye movements. After the reorientation, the otoliths correctly indicated the static orientation of the subject with respect to gravity, while the semicircular canals provided a strong signal of rotation. This rotation signal from the canals could only be consistent with a static orientation with respect to gravity if the rotation-axis indicated by the canals was exactly parallel to gravity. This was not true, so a cue-conflict existed. These conflicting stimuli elicited motion sickness and a complex tumbling sensation. Strong horizontal, vertical, and/or torsional eye movements were also induced, allowing us to study the influence of the conflict between the otoliths and the canals on all three eye-movement components. We found a shortening of the horizontal and vertical time constants of the decay of nystagmus and a trend for an increase in peak velocity following reorientation. The dumping of the velocity storage occurred regardless of whether eye velocity along that axis was compensatory to the head rotation or not. We found a trend for the axis of eye velocity to reorient to make the head-velocity signal from the canals consistent with the head-orientation signal from the otoliths, but this reorientation was small and only observed when subjects were tilted to upright. Previous models of canal-otolith interaction could not fully account for our data, particularly the decreased time constant of the decay of nystagmus. We present a model with a mechanism that reduces the velocity-storage component in the presence of a strong cue-conflict. Our study, supported by other experiments, also indicates that static otolith signals exhibit considerably smaller effects on eye movements in humans than in monkeys.

@Article{Bockisch2003b,
Title = {Eye movements during multiaxis whole-body rotations},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {J.Neurophysiol.},
Year = {2003},
Pages = {355--366},
Volume = {89},
Abstract = {The semi-circular canals and the otolith organs both contribute to gaze stabilization during head movement. We investigated how these sensory signals interact when they provide conflicting information about head orientation in space. Human subjects were reoriented 90ø in pitch or roll during long-duration, constant-velocity rotation about the earth-vertical axis while we measured three-dimensional eye movements. After the reorientation, the otoliths correctly indicated the static orientation of the subject with respect to gravity, while the semicircular canals provided a strong signal of rotation. This rotation signal from the canals could only be consistent with a static orientation with respect to gravity if the rotation-axis indicated by the canals was exactly parallel to gravity. This was not true, so a cue-conflict existed. These conflicting stimuli elicited motion sickness and a complex tumbling sensation. Strong horizontal, vertical, and/or torsional eye movements were also induced, allowing us to study the influence of the conflict between the otoliths and the canals on all three eye-movement components. We found a shortening of the horizontal and vertical time constants of the decay of nystagmus and a trend for an increase in peak velocity following reorientation. The dumping of the velocity storage occurred regardless of whether eye velocity along that axis was compensatory to the head rotation or not. We found a trend for the axis of eye velocity to reorient to make the head-velocity signal from the canals consistent with the head-orientation signal from the otoliths, but this reorientation was small and only observed when subjects were tilted to upright. Previous models of canal-otolith interaction could not fully account for our data, particularly the decreased time constant of the decay of nystagmus. We present a model with a mechanism that reduces the velocity-storage component in the presence of a strong cue-conflict. Our study, supported by other experiments, also indicates that static otolith signals exhibit considerably smaller effects on eye movements in humans than in monkeys.},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {canal, canals, complex, data, dumping, earth vertical axis, effect, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, eye velocity, Gaze, gaze stabilization, gravity, head, head movement, head orientation, head rotation, human, human subjects, humans, interaction, mechanism, model, models, monkey, monkeys, motion, Motion sickness, movement, movements, nystagmus, orientation, otolith, otolith organs, Otoliths, peak velocity, pitch, roll, rotation, rotations, semi-circular canal, semi-circular canals, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, Sensation, sickness, signal, signals, space, stabilization, static, studies, th_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements, three dimensional, time constant, time constants, torsional eye movement, Torsional eye movements, velocity, velocity-storage, Velocity storage, vertical},
Refid = {4825},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, R. Jaeger, and T. Jarchow, “Otolith information processing,” in 2003 abstract viewer, Washington DC, 2003, p. Program Planner 268.11.–.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter2003,
Title = {Otolith information processing},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Jaeger, R. and Jarchow, T.},
Booktitle = {2003 Abstract Viewer},
Year = {2003},
Pages = {Program Planner 268.11.--},
Publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {otolith, information processing},
Refid = {5755},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Jarchow, M. Wirz, T. Haslwanter, V. Dietz, and D. Straumann, “Perceived horizontal body position in healthy and paraplegic subjects: effect of centrifugation,” J.neurophysiol., vol. 90, iss. 5, pp. 2973-2977, 2003.

{The perception of body position is mainly mediated by otolith information and visual cues. It has been shown, however, that proprioceptive sources are also involved. To distinguish between the contributions of the vestibular and nonvisual extra-vestibular information to graviception, we tested the effects of a stimulus that leaves the vestibular input unchanged but modifies the information from sense organs located more caudal along the trunk. This was achieved by bringing subjects into a horizontal ear-down position and rotating them around an earth-vertical axis that coincided with the interaural axis. In this paradigm, through centrifugal force, the stimulation of the vestibular and the putative extravestibular graviceptive organs in the body becomes dissociated. Healthy subjects (n = 14) and paraplegic patients with lesions between T4 and T8 (n = 7) adjusted themselves to the perceived horizontal right-ear down body position under two conditions: one with constant velocity rotation (ROT

@Article{Jarchow2003,
Title = {Perceived horizontal body position in healthy and paraplegic subjects: effect of centrifugation},
Author = {Jarchow, T. and Wirz, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Dietz, V. and Straumann, D.},
Journal = {J.Neurophysiol.},
Year = {2003},
Month = nov,
Number = {5},
Pages = {2973--2977},
Volume = {90},
Abstract = {The perception of body position is mainly mediated by otolith information and visual cues. It has been shown, however, that proprioceptive sources are also involved. To distinguish between the contributions of the vestibular and nonvisual extra-vestibular information to graviception, we tested the effects of a stimulus that leaves the vestibular input unchanged but modifies the information from sense organs located more caudal along the trunk. This was achieved by bringing subjects into a horizontal ear-down position and rotating them around an earth-vertical axis that coincided with the interaural axis. In this paradigm, through centrifugal force, the stimulation of the vestibular and the putative extravestibular graviceptive organs in the body becomes dissociated. Healthy subjects (n = 14) and paraplegic patients with lesions between T4 and T8 (n = 7) adjusted themselves to the perceived horizontal right-ear down body position under two conditions: one with constant velocity rotation (ROT, velocity =120 degrees /s) around the earth-vertical axis of the turntable, and one without rotation (BASE). Among healthy subjects, the individual differences between BASE and ROT varied widely in both the feet-up or feet-down direction. In contrast, adjustments in paraplegic patients during ROT were always in the feet-down direction compared with BASE. A model with two extravestibular graviceptive sensors could explain our results: one sensor is located rostral to T4, and the other is caudal to T8. A load on the rostral graviceptor is interpreted as a tilt of the body in the feet-up direction and shifts the adjustments of perceived body position feet-down; a load on the caudal receptor is interpreted as a tilt in the feet-down direction and shifts the perceived body position feet-up. During ROT, healthy subjects solve the discrepant inputs of both extravestibular graviceptors in a highly variable manner, while paraplegic subjects show less variability because they are restricted to only the rostral graviceptor},
Address = {Department of Psychology University of Zurich, CH-PO32 Zurich, Switzerland. thomas@jarchow.ch},
Comment = {DA - 20031117 IS - 0022-3077 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, centrifugal force, Centrifugation, Chi-Square Distribution, comparative study, contrast, Cues, direction, earth vertical axis, effect, ENG, Female, force, graviceptor, human, lesion, lesions, Male, methods, Middle Aged, model, otolith, Paraplegia, patients, perception, physiology, physiopathology, position, posture, psychology, receptor, result, results, rotation, Sense Organs, stimulation, Supine Position, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, tilt, velocity, vestibular, visual},
Refid = {5777},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:12878718}
}

• K. P. Weber, A. Palla, K. Landau, T. Haslwanter, and D. Straumann, “Incomitance of ocular rotation axes in trochlear nerve palsy,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 1004, pp. 347-351, 2003.

Strabismus due to palsy of a single muscle in one eye is always incomitant, which is a consequence of Hering’s law of equal innervation. We asked whether this law had similar consequences on the orientation of ocular rotation axes. Patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy were oscillated about the nasooccipital (= roll) axis (+/-35 degrees, 0.3 Hz), and monocularly fixed on targets on a head-fixed Hess screen. Both the covered and uncovered eyes were measured with dual search coils. The rotation axis of the covered eye (paretic or healthy) tilted more nasally from the line of sight when gaze was directed toward the side of the healthy eye. The rotation axis of the viewing eye (paretic or healthy), however, remained roughly aligned with the line of sight. We conclude that incomitance due to eye muscle palsy extends to ocular rotation axes during vestibular stimulation

@Article{Weber2003,
Title = {Incomitance of ocular rotation axes in trochlear nerve palsy},
Author = {Weber, K.P. and Palla, A. and Landau, K. and Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D.},
Year = {2003},
Month = oct,
Pages = {347--351},
Volume = {1004},
Abstract = {Strabismus due to palsy of a single muscle in one eye is always incomitant, which is a consequence of Hering's law of equal innervation. We asked whether this law had similar consequences on the orientation of ocular rotation axes. Patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy were oscillated about the nasooccipital (= roll) axis (+/-35 degrees, 0.3 Hz), and monocularly fixed on targets on a head-fixed Hess screen. Both the covered and uncovered eyes were measured with dual search coils. The rotation axis of the covered eye (paretic or healthy) tilted more nasally from the line of sight when gaze was directed toward the side of the healthy eye. The rotation axis of the viewing eye (paretic or healthy), however, remained roughly aligned with the line of sight. We conclude that incomitance due to eye muscle palsy extends to ocular rotation axes during vestibular stimulation},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 20031209 IS - 0077-8923 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
not_rev},
Keywords = {Adolescent, Adult, Biomechanics, dual search coil, ENG, eye, eye movements, Female, Gaze, Hering's law, human, innervation, Male, Middle Aged, muscle, nerve, Neurology, ocular, ophthalmoplegia, orientation, palsy, patients, physiology, physiopathology, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, roll, rotation, search coil, stimulation, strabismus, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, trochlear nerve, Trochlear Nerve Diseases, unilateral, vestibular, vestibular stimulation},
Refid = {5799},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:14662474}
}

• S. B. Yakushin, A. Palla, T. Haslwanter, C. J. Bockisch, and D. Straumann, “Dependence of adaptation of the human vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex on gravity,” Exp.brain res., vol. 152, iss. 1, pp. 137-142, 2003.

@Article{Yakushin2003a,
Title = {Dependence of adaptation of the human vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex on gravity},
Author = {Yakushin, S.B. and Palla, A. and Haslwanter, T. and Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {2003},
Month = sep,
Number = {1},
Pages = {137--142},
Volume = {152},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 East 100th Street, Box 1135, New York, NY 10029, USA. sergei.yakushin@mssm.edu},
Comment = {UI - 22816735 DA - 20030825 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {adaptation, adaptive, analysis, AVOR, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye-movements, function, gain, gravity, H, head, head orientation, head position, human, human subjects, humans, movement, movements, Neurology, orientation, oscillation, pitch, position, Reflex, values, vertical, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {5757},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:12879171}
}

### 2002

• J. P. Carey, L. B. Minor, G. C. Peng, C. C. Della Santina, P. D. Cremer, and T. Haslwanter, “Changes in the three-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular reflex following intratympanic gentamicin for meniere’s disease,” J.assoc.res.otolaryngol., vol. 3, iss. 4, pp. 430-443, 2002.

{The 3-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes (AVOR) elicited by rapid rotary head thrusts were studied in 17 subjects with unilateral Meniere’s disease before and 2-10 weeks after treatment with intratympanic gentamicin and in 13 subjects after surgical unilateral vestibular destruction (SUVD). Each head thrust was in the horizontal plane or in either diagonal plane of the vertical semicircular canals, so that each head thrust effectively stimulated only one pair of canals. The AVOR gains (eye velocity/head velocity during the 30 ms before peak head velocity) for the head thrusts exciting each individual canal were averaged and taken as a measure of the function of that canal. Prior to intratympanic gentamicin, gains for head thrusts that excited canals on the affected side were 0.91 +/- 0.20 (horizontal canal, HC), 0.78 +/- 0.20 (anterior canal, AC), and 0.83 +/- 0.10 (posterior canal, PC). The asymmetries between these gain values and those for head thrusts that excited the contralateral canals were <2%. In contrast, caloric asymmetries averaged 40% +/- 32%. Intratympanic gentamicin resulted in decreased gains attributable to each canal on the treated side: 0.40 +/- 0.12 (HC), 0.35 +/- 0.14 (AC), 0.31 +/- 0.14 (PC) (p <0.01). However, the gains attributable to contralateral canals dropped only slightly, resulting in marked asymmetries between gains for excitation of ipsilateral canals versus their contralateral mates: HC: 34% +/- 12%, AC: 24% +/- 25%, and PC: 42% +/- 13%. There was no difference in the AVOR gain for excitation of the ipsilateral HC after gentamicin in patients who received a single intratympanic injection (0.39 +/- 0.11

@Article{Carey2002,
Title = {Changes in the Three-Dimensional Angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex following Intratympanic Gentamicin for Meniere's Disease},
Author = {Carey, J.P. and Minor, L.B. and Peng, G.C. and Della Santina, C.C. and Cremer, P.D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {J.Assoc.Res.Otolaryngol.},
Year = {2002},
Month = dec,
Number = {4},
Pages = {430--443},
Volume = {3},
Abstract = {The 3-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes (AVOR) elicited by rapid rotary head thrusts were studied in 17 subjects with unilateral Meniere's disease before and 2-10 weeks after treatment with intratympanic gentamicin and in 13 subjects after surgical unilateral vestibular destruction (SUVD). Each head thrust was in the horizontal plane or in either diagonal plane of the vertical semicircular canals, so that each head thrust effectively stimulated only one pair of canals. The AVOR gains (eye velocity/head velocity during the 30 ms before peak head velocity) for the head thrusts exciting each individual canal were averaged and taken as a measure of the function of that canal. Prior to intratympanic gentamicin, gains for head thrusts that excited canals on the affected side were 0.91 +/- 0.20 (horizontal canal, HC), 0.78 +/- 0.20 (anterior canal, AC), and 0.83 +/- 0.10 (posterior canal, PC). The asymmetries between these gain values and those for head thrusts that excited the contralateral canals were <2%. In contrast, caloric asymmetries averaged 40% +/- 32%. Intratympanic gentamicin resulted in decreased gains attributable to each canal on the treated side: 0.40 +/- 0.12 (HC), 0.35 +/- 0.14 (AC), 0.31 +/- 0.14 (PC) (p <0.01). However, the gains attributable to contralateral canals dropped only slightly, resulting in marked asymmetries between gains for excitation of ipsilateral canals versus their contralateral mates: HC: 34% +/- 12%, AC: 24% +/- 25%, and PC: 42% +/- 13%. There was no difference in the AVOR gain for excitation of the ipsilateral HC after gentamicin in patients who received a single intratympanic injection (0.39 +/- 0.11, n = 12) in comparison to those who received 2-3 injections (0.42 +/- 0.15, n = 5, p = 0.7). Gain decreases attributed to the gentamicin-treated HC and AC were not as severe as those observed after SUVD. This finding suggests that intratympanic gentamicin causes a partial vestibular lesion that may involve preservation of spontaneous discharge and/or rotational sensitivity of afferents},
Address = {Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA},
Comment = {Used for the NIDCD Congressional Justification statement, June 2002, as a selected showcase for research accomplishments of NIDCD-supported investigators.
reviewed},
Keywords = {afferent, afferents, asymmetry, AVOR, caloric, canal, canals, contralateral, contrast, discharge, disease, ENG, eye, function, gain, gentamicin, head, horizontal canal, Injections, intratympanic, intratympanic gentamicin, ipsilateral, lesion, Meniere, Meniere's, Meniere's disease, neck, patients, posterior canal, Reflex, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, sensitivity, surgery, surgical, th_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional, treatment, unilateral, Unilateral Meniere's disease, United States, values, velocity, vertical, vertical semicircular canal, vertical semicircular canals, vestibular, vestibular lesion, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {4936},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:12486598}
}

• J. P. Carey, T. Hirvonen, G. C. Peng, C. C. Della Santina, P. D. Cremer, T. Haslwanter, and L. B. Minor, “Changes in the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex after a single dose of intratympanic gentamicin for meniere’s disease,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 956, pp. 581-584, 2002.
@Article{Carey2002a,
Title = {Changes in the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex after a single dose of intratympanic gentamicin for Meniere's disease},
Author = {Carey, J.P. and Hirvonen, T. and Peng, G.C. and Della Santina, C.C. and Cremer, P.D. and Haslwanter, T. and Minor, L.B.},
Year = {2002},
Month = apr,
Pages = {581--584},
Volume = {956},
Address = {Department of Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. jcarey@jhmi.edu},
Comment = {UI - 21958641 DA - 20020418 IS - 0077-8923 LA - eng ID - K23 DC00196/DC/NIDCD ID - R01 DC02390/DC/NIDCD PT - Journal Article CY - United States RN - 0 (Gentamicins) SB - IM
not_rev},
Keywords = {disease, drug effects, drug therapy, ENG, gentamicin, Gentamicins, human, Injections, intratympanic, intratympanic gentamicin, laterality, Meniere, Meniere's, Meniere's disease, Otolaryngology, physiopathology, prevention & control, Reflex, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S., th_not_rev, therapeutic use, Tympanic Membrane, United States, vertigo, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {4831},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:11960873}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Mechanics of eye movements: implications of the "orbital revolution",” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 956, pp. 33-41, 2002.

Our understanding of the functional structure of extraocular muscles has undergone a profound change: while these muscles used to be represented by strings running straight from their origin in the posterior orbita to their insertion on the globe, we now know that their paths and pulling directions are dominated by fibromuscular pulley structures, keeping them close to the orbital wall for most of their path. An overview is presented of recent models that have been developed to understand the implications of muscle pulleys for the neural control of eye movements and the applications of such models to the interpretation of experimental data

@Article{Haslwanter2002,
Title = {Mechanics of eye movements: implications of the "orbital revolution"},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Year = {2002},
Month = apr,
Pages = {33--41},
Volume = {956},
Abstract = {Our understanding of the functional structure of extraocular muscles has undergone a profound change: while these muscles used to be represented by strings running straight from their origin in the posterior orbita to their insertion on the globe, we now know that their paths and pulling directions are dominated by fibromuscular pulley structures, keeping them close to the orbital wall for most of their path. An overview is presented of recent models that have been developed to understand the implications of muscle pulleys for the neural control of eye movements and the applications of such models to the interpretation of experimental data},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich and Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. haslwant@neurol.unizh.ch},
Comment = {UI - 21958559 DA - 20020418 IS - 0077-8923 LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Review PT - Review, Tutorial CY - United States SB - IM
not_rev},
Keywords = {Animal, control, data, direction, ENG, experimental, Extraocular, extraocular muscles, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, human, innervation, model, models, movement, movements, muscle, muscles, Neurology, Oculomotor Muscles, Orbit, origin, physiology, review, Running, structure, th_not_rev, United States},
Refid = {4832},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:11960791}
}

• R. Jaeger, A. Takagi, and T. Haslwanter, “Modeling the relation between head orientations and otolith responses in humans,” Hear.res., vol. 173, iss. 1-2, pp. 29-42, 2002.

We have performed a finite element simulation of realistic displacements of otolith membranes by static linear accelerations. The simulations were based on accurate measurements of the surfaces of human utricular and saccular maculae, which indicate a clear curvature of these surfaces. The results show that this curvature, a feature probably found in all mammals, has no effect on the mechanics of the structure as a whole since the elastic coupling in the otolith membrane is insufficient. Hair cell excitations on any place of the macula are only affected by the local orientation of the macula with respect to acceleration. Based on the displacements of the otolith membrane, we also calculated the induced activation patterns on the otolith epithelia. These patterns provide for the first time a complete image of peripheral otolith activity. The individual activation patterns at selected locations on the macula correspond well with single cell recordings of actual peripheral otolith neurons

@Article{Jaeger2002,
Title = {Modeling the relation between head orientations and otolith responses in humans},
Author = {Jaeger, R. and Takagi, A. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Hear.Res.},
Year = {2002},
Month = nov,
Number = {1-2},
Pages = {29--42},
Volume = {173},
Abstract = {We have performed a finite element simulation of realistic displacements of otolith membranes by static linear accelerations. The simulations were based on accurate measurements of the surfaces of human utricular and saccular maculae, which indicate a clear curvature of these surfaces. The results show that this curvature, a feature probably found in all mammals, has no effect on the mechanics of the structure as a whole since the elastic coupling in the otolith membrane is insufficient. Hair cell excitations on any place of the macula are only affected by the local orientation of the macula with respect to acceleration. Based on the displacements of the otolith membrane, we also calculated the induced activation patterns on the otolith epithelia. These patterns provide for the first time a complete image of peripheral otolith activity. The individual activation patterns at selected locations on the macula correspond well with single cell recordings of actual peripheral otolith neurons},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Tubingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, D-72076, Tubingen, Germany},
Comment = {UI - 22260134 DA - 20021009 IS - 0378-5955 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - Netherlands SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {acceleration, activation patterns, activity, cell, displacement, effect, ENG, Epithelium, Germany, hair, hair cell, head, head orientation, human, humans, linear, linear acceleration, macula, maculae, mammal, Mammals, modeling, Netherlands, Neurology, neuron, neurons, orientation, otolith, patterns, peripheral, recordings, response, RESPONSES, result, results, saccular, simulation, single cell, static, structure, th_rev, utricular},
Refid = {4830},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:12372633}
}

### 2001

• C. J. Bockisch and T. Haslwanter, “Three-dimensional eye position during static roll and pitch in humans,” Vision res., vol. 41, iss. 16, pp. 2127-2137, 2001.

We investigated how three-dimensional (3D) eye position is influenced by static head position relative to gravity, a reflex probably mediated by the otolith organs. In monkeys, the torsional component of eye position is modulated by gravity, but little data is available in humans. Subjects were held in different head/body tilts in roll and pitch for 35 s while we measured 3D eye position with scleral coils, and we used methods that reduced torsion artifacts produced by the eyelids pressing on the contact lens and exit wire. 3D eye positions were described by planar fits to the data (Listing’s plane), and changes in these planes showed how torsion varied with head position. Similar to findings in monkeys, the eyes counterrolled during roll tilts independent of horizontal and vertical eye position, reaching a maximum torsion of 4.9 degrees. Counterroll was not proportional to the shear force on the macula of the utricles: gain (torsion/sine of the head roll angle) decreased by 50% from near upright to ear down. During pitch forward, torsion increased when subjects looked right, and decreased when they looked left. However, the maximum change of torsion was only -0.06 degrees per degree of horizontal eye position, which is less than reported in monkey. Also in contrast to monkey, we found little change in torsion when subjects were pitched backwards

@Article{Bockisch2001,
Title = {Three-dimensional eye position during static roll and pitch in humans},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Vision Res.},
Year = {2001},
Month = jul,
Number = {16},
Pages = {2127--2137},
Volume = {41},
Abstract = {We investigated how three-dimensional (3D) eye position is influenced by static head position relative to gravity, a reflex probably mediated by the otolith organs. In monkeys, the torsional component of eye position is modulated by gravity, but little data is available in humans. Subjects were held in different head/body tilts in roll and pitch for 35 s while we measured 3D eye position with scleral coils, and we used methods that reduced torsion artifacts produced by the eyelids pressing on the contact lens and exit wire. 3D eye positions were described by planar fits to the data (Listing's plane), and changes in these planes showed how torsion varied with head position. Similar to findings in monkeys, the eyes counterrolled during roll tilts independent of horizontal and vertical eye position, reaching a maximum torsion of 4.9 degrees. Counterroll was not proportional to the shear force on the macula of the utricles: gain (torsion/sine of the head roll angle) decreased by 50% from near upright to ear down. During pitch forward, torsion increased when subjects looked right, and decreased when they looked left. However, the maximum change of torsion was only -0.06 degrees per degree of horizontal eye position, which is less than reported in monkey. Also in contrast to monkey, we found little change in torsion when subjects were pitched backwards},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstr. 26, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland. chris.bockisch@nos.usz.ch},
Comment = {UI - 21298007 DA - 20010613 IS - 0042-6989 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - England SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, Artifacts, contrast, data, ear, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, Eyelids, force, gain, gravity, head, head position, head roll, human, humans, lens, Listing's plane, macula, method, methods, monkey, monkeys, Neurology, orientation, otolith, otolith organs, physiology, physiopathology, pitch, position, reaching, Reflex, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, roll, roll-tilt, roll tilt, static, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three dimensional, tilt, torsion, utricle, vertical},
Refid = {4833},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:11403796}
}

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, and T. Haslwanter, “Eye movements during mult-axis rotations,” Soc neurosci abstr, vol. 27, p. –, 2001.
[BibTeX]
@Other{Bockisch2001a,
Title = {Eye movements during mult-axis rotations},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Journal = {Soc Neurosci Abstr},
Keywords = {eye, eye-movements, eye movements, movement, movements, rotation, rotations},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {4751},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Volume = {27},
Year = {2001}
}

• C. J. Bockisch, D. Straumann, and T. Haslwanter, “Oculomotor responses to multi-axis rotations,” 11th annual meeting of the society for the neural control of movement, vol. 6, p. C13–, 2001.
[BibTeX]
@Other{Bockisch2001b,
Title = {Oculomotor responses to multi-axis rotations},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Journal = {11th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neural Control of Movement},
Keywords = {oculomotor, response, rotation, rotations},
Pages = {C13--},
Refid = {4692},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Volume = {6},
Year = {2001}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “"denn erstens kommt es anders, ..",” Berg & steigen, vol. 3, iss. 01, pp. 18-19, 2001.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Haslwanter2001,
Title = {"Denn erstens kommt es anders, .."},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Berg \& Steigen},
Year = {2001},
Number = {01},
Pages = {18--19},
Volume = {3},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {th_not_rev},
Refid = {4855},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• S. Priglinger, H. Hametner, and T. Haslwanter, “Functional topography as a guideline for differential diagnosis of vertical eye movement disorders and oblique muscle surgery,” Spektrum augenheilkd, vol. 15, iss. 1, pp. 16-26, 2001.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Priglinger2001a,
Title = {Functional topography as a guideline for differential diagnosis of vertical eye movement disorders and oblique muscle surgery},
Author = {Priglinger, S. and Hametner, H. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Spektrum Augenheilkd},
Year = {2001},
Number = {1},
Pages = {16--26},
Volume = {15},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disorders, eye, eye movement disorders, movement, movement disorder, Movement Disorders, muscle, surgery, th_rev, topography, vertical},
Refid = {4664},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• D. Straumann and T. Haslwanter, “Ocular motor disorders,” Curr opin neurol, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 5-10, 2001.

Our detailed understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the ocular motor system allows an accurate differential diagnosis of pathological eye movement patterns. This review covers important clinical studies and studies in basic research relevant for the neurologist published during the past year

@Article{Straumann2001,
Title = {Ocular motor disorders},
Author = {Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Curr Opin Neurol},
Year = {2001},
Month = feb,
Number = {1},
Pages = {5--10},
Volume = {14},
Abstract = {Our detailed understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the ocular motor system allows an accurate differential diagnosis of pathological eye movement patterns. This review covers important clinical studies and studies in basic research relevant for the neurologist published during the past year},
Address = {Neurology Department, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. dominik@neurol.unizh.ch},
Comment = {UI - 21097164 LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Review PT - Review, Tutorial DA - 20010222 IS - 1350-7540 SB - IM CY - England JC - BX4
reviewed},
Keywords = {anatomy, Animal, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disorders, ENG, eye, Fixation,Ocular, human, movement, Muscular Diseases, Neurology, ocular, ocular motor, Oculomotor Muscles, patterns, physiology, physiopathology, Pursuit,Smooth, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, review, saccades, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, system, th_review, Vision,Binocular},
Refid = {4673},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:11176211}
}

### 2000

• S. T. Aw, T. Haslwanter, M. Fetter, and J. Dichgans, “Three-dimensional spatial characteristics of caloric nystagmus,” Exp.brain res., vol. 134, iss. 3, pp. 289-294, 2000.

We investigated the three-dimensional spatial characteristics of caloric nystagmus during excitation and inhibition of the lateral semicircular canal in five normal human subjects. Each subject was repositioned in 45 degrees steps at 1-min intervals such that the right lateral semicircular canal plane was reoriented in pitch, from 135 degrees backwards from the upright position to 135 degrees forwards, while the right ear was continuously stimulated with air at 44 degrees C. In orientations in which caloric stimulus resulted in excitation of the right lateral semicircular canal, the eye velocity axis was orthogonal to the average orientation of the right lateral semicircular canal plane. However, in orientations in which caloric stimulus resulted in inhibition of the right lateral semicircular canal, the eye velocity axis was orthogonal to the average orientation of the left and not the right lateral semicircular canal plane. These findings suggest that velocity and direction of caloric nystagmus depend not only on the absolute magnitude of vestibular activity on the stimulated side but also on the differences in activity between the left and right vestibular nuclei, most probably mediated centrally via brainstem commissural pathways

@Article{Aw2000a,
Title = {Three-dimensional spatial characteristics of caloric nystagmus},
Author = {Aw, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Fetter, M. and Dichgans, J.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {2000},
Month = oct,
Number = {3},
Pages = {289--294},
Volume = {134},
Abstract = {We investigated the three-dimensional spatial characteristics of caloric nystagmus during excitation and inhibition of the lateral semicircular canal in five normal human subjects. Each subject was repositioned in 45 degrees steps at 1-min intervals such that the right lateral semicircular canal plane was reoriented in pitch, from 135 degrees backwards from the upright position to 135 degrees forwards, while the right ear was continuously stimulated with air at 44 degrees C. In orientations in which caloric stimulus resulted in excitation of the right lateral semicircular canal, the eye velocity axis was orthogonal to the average orientation of the right lateral semicircular canal plane. However, in orientations in which caloric stimulus resulted in inhibition of the right lateral semicircular canal, the eye velocity axis was orthogonal to the average orientation of the left and not the right lateral semicircular canal plane. These findings suggest that velocity and direction of caloric nystagmus depend not only on the absolute magnitude of vestibular activity on the stimulated side but also on the differences in activity between the left and right vestibular nuclei, most probably mediated centrally via brainstem commissural pathways},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW, Australia. sweea@icn.usyd.edu.au},
Comment = {UI - 20498052 LA - Eng DA - 20001023 IS - 0014-4819 SB - M CY - GERMANY JC - EP2 AA - AUTHOR RO - O:099
reviewed},
Keywords = {activity, brainstem, caloric, caloric nystagmus, canal, commissural, commissural pathways, direction, ear, ENG, eye, eye velocity, Germany, human, human subjects, inhibition, inhibition of, lateral, lateral semicircular canal, Neurology, normal, nuclei, nystagmus, orientation, pitch, position, semicircular canal, th_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional, velocity, vestibular, vestibular nuclei},
Refid = {4586},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:0011045353}
}

• C. J. Bockisch, R. Jaeger, M. R. Duersteler, and T. Haslwanter, “3d eye movement responses to static roll and pitch in humans,” in Soc.neurosci.abstr., 2000, pp. 1994-1994.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Bockisch2000,
Title = {3D eye movement responses to static roll and pitch in humans},
Author = {Bockisch, C.J. and Jaeger, R. and Duersteler, M.R. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Soc.Neurosci.Abstr.},
Year = {2000},
Number = {2},
Pages = {1994--1994},
Volume = {26},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {eye, human, humans, movement, pitch, response, roll, static},
Refid = {4584},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• M. C. Brodsky, T. Haslwanter, A. A. Kori, and D. Straumann, “The role of volitional effort in the bielschowsky head tilt test: a clinical and oculographic assessment,” Binocul.vis.strabismus q., vol. 15, iss. 4, pp. 325-330, 2000.

PURPOSE: To determine whether volitional effort on the part of the subject can influence the results of the Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bielschowsky Head Tilt testing was performed in five normal subjects. Vertical amplitudes were measured with prism alternate cover testing when the head tilt was voluntary (volitionally maintained in a tilted position by the subject), forced (restrained in the tilted position by the examiner while the patient actively resisted) and active (restrained in a tilted position by the examiner with the subject actively trying to increase the tilt). Three- dimensional scleral search coil recordings were performed in three additional normal subjects using the same paradigm to determine the effect of volition on the torsional positions of the eyes. RESULTS: No vertical deviation of the eyes was detectable with prism alternate cover testing in any position of tilt, regardless of whether the tilt was voluntary, forced, or active. Volitional attempts to tilt the head were preceded by a transient ipsiversive torsional movement of the measured eye, which was quickly followed by a normal ocular counterroll. Following completion of the counterroll, the position of the eyes was constant for any position of head tilt, regardless of whether the tilt was forced, active, or voluntary. CONCLUSION: Anticipatory torsional movements of the eyes are evoked by an attempted volitional head movement in the roll plane and its associated innervation to the cervical musculature. However, these volitional movements do not alter the final torsional position of the eyes, which is a function of the degree of head tilt and the normal ocular counterroll. These anticipatory torsional movements do not influence the results of the Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test clinically by prism alternate cover testing

@Article{Brodsky2000,
Title = {The Role Of Volitional Effort In The Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test: A Clinical And Oculographic Assessment},
Author = {Brodsky, M.C. and Haslwanter, T. and Kori, A.A. and Straumann, D.},
Journal = {Binocul.Vis.Strabismus Q.},
Year = {2000},
Number = {4},
Pages = {325--330},
Volume = {15},
Abstract = {PURPOSE: To determine whether volitional effort on the part of the subject can influence the results of the Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bielschowsky Head Tilt testing was performed in five normal subjects. Vertical amplitudes were measured with prism alternate cover testing when the head tilt was voluntary (volitionally maintained in a tilted position by the subject), forced (restrained in the tilted position by the examiner while the patient actively resisted) and active (restrained in a tilted position by the examiner with the subject actively trying to increase the tilt). Three- dimensional scleral search coil recordings were performed in three additional normal subjects using the same paradigm to determine the effect of volition on the torsional positions of the eyes. RESULTS: No vertical deviation of the eyes was detectable with prism alternate cover testing in any position of tilt, regardless of whether the tilt was voluntary, forced, or active. Volitional attempts to tilt the head were preceded by a transient ipsiversive torsional movement of the measured eye, which was quickly followed by a normal ocular counterroll. Following completion of the counterroll, the position of the eyes was constant for any position of head tilt, regardless of whether the tilt was forced, active, or voluntary. CONCLUSION: Anticipatory torsional movements of the eyes are evoked by an attempted volitional head movement in the roll plane and its associated innervation to the cervical musculature. However, these volitional movements do not alter the final torsional position of the eyes, which is a function of the degree of head tilt and the normal ocular counterroll. These anticipatory torsional movements do not influence the results of the Bielschowsky Head Tilt Test clinically by prism alternate cover testing},
Address = {Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas},
Comment = {UI - 0 LA - ENG PT - JOURNAL ARTICLE DA - 20001127 IS - 1088-6281 JC - C7X
reviewed},
Keywords = {anticipatory, assessment, cervical, effect, ENG, eye, function, head, head movement, Head tilt, innervation, method, methods, movement, movements, normal, ocular, ocular counterroll, Ophthalmology, patients, position, prism, recordings, result, results, roll, search coil, test, th_rev, three dimensional, tilt, transient, vertical, Volition},
Refid = {4630},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:0011093092}
}

• T. Haslwanter, R. Jaeger, S. Mayr, and M. Fetter, “Three-dimensional eye-movement responses to off-vertical axis rotations in humans,” Exp.brain res., vol. 134, iss. 1, pp. 96-106, 2000.

We recorded three-dimensional eye movements elicited by velocity steps about axes that were tilted with respect to the earth-vertical. Subjects were accelerated in 1 s from zero to 100 degrees/s, and the axis of rotation was tilted by 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, or 90 degrees. This stimulus induced a constant horizontal velocity component that was directed opposite to the direction of rotation, as well as a modulation of the horizontal, vertical and torsional components with the frequency of the rotation. The maximum steady-state response in the horizontal constant-velocity component was much smaller than in other species (about 6 degrees/s), reaching a maximum at a tilt angle of about 60 degrees. While the amplitude of the horizontal modulation component increased up to a tilt angle of 90 degrees (8.4 degrees/s), the vertical and torsional modulation amplitudes saturated around 60 degrees (ca. 2.5 degrees/s). At small tilt angles, the horizontal modulation component showed a small phase lag with respect to the chair position, which turned into a small phase lead at large tilt angles. The torsional component showed a phase lead that increased with increasing tilt angle. The vertical and torsional velocity modulation at large tilt angles was not predicted by a recent model of otolith-canal interaction by Merfeld. Agreement between model and experimental data could be achieved, however, by introducing a constant force along the body’s z-axis to compensate for the gravitational pull on the otoliths in the head-upright position. This approach had been suggested previously to explain the direction of the perceived subjective vertical during roll under different g-levels, and produced in our model the observed vertical and torsional modulation components at large tilt angles

@Article{Haslwanter2000,
Title = {Three-dimensional eye-movement responses to off-vertical axis rotations in humans},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Jaeger, R. and Mayr, S. and Fetter, M.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {2000},
Month = sep,
Number = {1},
Pages = {96--106},
Volume = {134},
Abstract = {We recorded three-dimensional eye movements elicited by velocity steps about axes that were tilted with respect to the earth-vertical. Subjects were accelerated in 1 s from zero to 100 degrees/s, and the axis of rotation was tilted by 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, or 90 degrees. This stimulus induced a constant horizontal velocity component that was directed opposite to the direction of rotation, as well as a modulation of the horizontal, vertical and torsional components with the frequency of the rotation. The maximum steady-state response in the horizontal constant-velocity component was much smaller than in other species (about 6 degrees/s), reaching a maximum at a tilt angle of about 60 degrees. While the amplitude of the horizontal modulation component increased up to a tilt angle of 90 degrees (8.4 degrees/s), the vertical and torsional modulation amplitudes saturated around 60 degrees (ca. 2.5 degrees/s). At small tilt angles, the horizontal modulation component showed a small phase lag with respect to the chair position, which turned into a small phase lead at large tilt angles. The torsional component showed a phase lead that increased with increasing tilt angle. The vertical and torsional velocity modulation at large tilt angles was not predicted by a recent model of otolith-canal interaction by Merfeld. Agreement between model and experimental data could be achieved, however, by introducing a constant force along the body's z-axis to compensate for the gravitational pull on the otoliths in the head-upright position. This approach had been suggested previously to explain the direction of the perceived subjective vertical during roll under different g-levels, and produced in our model the observed vertical and torsional modulation components at large tilt angles},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {UI - 20477755 LA - Eng DA - 20001007 IS - 0014-4819 SB - M CY - GERMANY JC - EP2 AA - AUTHOR RO - O:099
reviewed},
Keywords = {approach, data, direction, ENG, experimental, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, force, Germany, human, humans, interaction, model, movement, movements, Neurology, off-vertical axis rotation, otolith, otolith canal, Otoliths, phase, position, reaching, response, roll, rotation, rotations, subjective vertical, th_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements, three dimensional, tilt, velocity, velocity step, velocity steps, vertical},
Refid = {4587},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:0011026731}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Computational and experimental aspects of rotatory eye movements in three dimensions,” PhD Thesis, 2000.
[BibTeX]
@PhdThesis{Haslwanter2000a,
Title = {Computational and Experimental Aspects of Rotatory Eye Movements in Three Dimensions},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
School = {ETH Zurich, Switzerland},
Year = {2000},
Keywords = {experimental, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, movement, movements},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {4419},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• R. Jaeger, T. Haslwanter, and M. Fetter, “Numerical simulation of otolith movement,” , 10th Annual Neural Control of Movement Meeting (Key West,FL), 2000, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Jaeger2000,
Title = {Numerical Simulation of Otolith Movement},
Author = {Jaeger, R. and Haslwanter, T. and Fetter, M.},
Year = {2000},
Address = {10th Annual Neural Control of Movement Meeting (Key West,FL)},
Pages = {--},
Volume = {10th Annual Neural Control of Movement Meeting},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {movement, otolith, simulation},
Refid = {4351},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 1999

• D. Anastasopoulos, A. Bronstein, T. Haslwanter, M. Fetter, and J. Dichgans, “The role of somatosensory input for the perception of verticality,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 871, pp. 379-383, 1999.
@Article{Anastasopoulos1999,
Title = {The role of somatosensory input for the perception of verticality},
Author = {Anastasopoulos, D. and Bronstein, A. and Haslwanter, T. and Fetter, M. and Dichgans, J.},
Year = {1999},
Month = may,
Pages = {379--383},
Volume = {871},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University of Ioannina, Greece. danastas@cc.uoi.gr},
Comment = {UI - 99300674 DA - 19990629 IS - 0077-8923 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - UNITED STATES SB - IM SB - S
not_rev},
Keywords = {Adult, Cerebral Infarction, diagnosis, ENG, Gravity Perception, human, magnetic resonance imaging, Middle Age, Neurology, perception, physiology, physiopathology, posture, Reference Values, Sensation Disorders, Somatosensory, somatosensory cortex, th_not_rev, United States, visual perception},
Refid = {4837},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:10372086}
}

• I. S. Curthoys, G. M. Halmagyi, T. Haslwanter, A. M. Burgess, R. A. Black, and A. Topple, “Human three dimensional eye movements in response to interaural linear acceleration during off center yaw rotation on a centrifuge,” Archives italiennes de biologie, vol. 137, iss. Suppl, pp. 44-45, 1999.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Curthoys1999b,
Title = {Human three dimensional eye movements in response to interaural linear acceleration during off center yaw rotation on a centrifuge},
Author = {Curthoys, I.S. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Haslwanter, T. and Burgess, A.M. and Black, R.A. and Topple, A.},
Journal = {Archives Italiennes de Biologie},
Year = {1999},
Number = {Suppl},
Pages = {44--45},
Volume = {137},
Booktitle = {The contributions of the vestibular system to oculo-motor, skeleto-motor and perceptual functions, Freiburg, Germany},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {3-D eye movements, centrifuge, eye movements, function, functions, human, linear acceleration, oculomotor, rotation, th_not_rev, vestibular system},
Refid = {803},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• M. Fetter, D. Anastasopoulos, and T. Haslwanter, “Three-dimensional properties of saccadic eye movements in patients with cerebellar ataxia,” in Current oculomotor research: physiological and psychological aspects, W. Becker, H. Deubel, and T. Mergner, Eds., New York: Plenum, 1999, pp. 391-396.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Fetter1999,
Title = {Three-dimensional properties of saccadic eye movements in patients with cerebellar ataxia},
Author = {Fetter, M. and Anastasopoulos, D. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Current Oculomotor Research: Physiological and Psychological Aspects},
Publisher = {Plenum},
Year = {1999},
Editor = {Becker, W. and Deubel, H. and Mergner, T.},
Pages = {391--396},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {ataxia, cerebellar, cerebellar ataxia, current, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, movement, movements, oculomotor, patients, saccadic, saccadic eye movement, saccadic eye movements, th_not_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional},
Refid = {4856},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• M. Fetter and T. Haslwanter, “3d eye movements – basics and clinical applications,” J vestib res, vol. 9, iss. 3, pp. 181-187, 1999.

The eye muscles in humans are arranged such that they allow rotations of the globe about any axis in three-dimensional space. Only 3D analysis techniques will suffice to describe the sometimes complex dependencies between the elicited eye movements and the stimulation conditions. With the recent availability of modern 3D eye movement measurement techniques and the further development of appropriate mathematical descriptions, we are now able to study eye movements in all three degrees of freedom. This article describes the basic mathematical tools for 3D eye movement analysis like rotation vectors, reference frames, coordinate systems, and the concept of Listing’s law. In a second part some clinical applications are presented. The close coupling between the vestibular and the oculomotor system suggests that by observing spontaneous and elicited eye movements in the case of an acute unilateral vestibular pathology we might be able to find out which parts of the vestibular system (that is, which of the semicircular canals or which of the otoliths) are affected. The rationale of such an analysis is based on the observation that electrical stimulation of single semicircular canal afferents in animals induces eye movements that lie roughly in the plane of the canal. It is, therefore, possible to deduce which canals cause the eye movements observed when only some parts of the vestibular system are defective. Thus, the analysis of 3D movements not only provides an improved understanding of how the brain organizes movement in 3D space, but also has the potential to significantly improve our diagnostic capabilities

@Article{Fetter1999a,
Title = {3D eye movements - basics and clinical applications},
Author = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {J Vestib Res},
Year = {1999},
Number = {3},
Pages = {181--187},
Volume = {9},
Abstract = {The eye muscles in humans are arranged such that they allow rotations of the globe about any axis in three-dimensional space. Only 3D analysis techniques will suffice to describe the sometimes complex dependencies between the elicited eye movements and the stimulation conditions. With the recent availability of modern 3D eye movement measurement techniques and the further development of appropriate mathematical descriptions, we are now able to study eye movements in all three degrees of freedom. This article describes the basic mathematical tools for 3D eye movement analysis like rotation vectors, reference frames, coordinate systems, and the concept of Listing's law. In a second part some clinical applications are presented. The close coupling between the vestibular and the oculomotor system suggests that by observing spontaneous and elicited eye movements in the case of an acute unilateral vestibular pathology we might be able to find out which parts of the vestibular system (that is, which of the semicircular canals or which of the otoliths) are affected. The rationale of such an analysis is based on the observation that electrical stimulation of single semicircular canal afferents in animals induces eye movements that lie roughly in the plane of the canal. It is, therefore, possible to deduce which canals cause the eye movements observed when only some parts of the vestibular system are defective. Thus, the analysis of 3D movements not only provides an improved understanding of how the brain organizes movement in 3D space, but also has the potential to significantly improve our diagnostic capabilities},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Eberhard-Karls University, Tubingen, Germany. michael.fetter@uni-tuebingen.de},
Comment = {UI - 99365524 DA - 19990913 IS - 0957-4271 LA - eng PT - Journal Article PT - Review PT - Review, Tutorial CY - UNITED STATES SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {3D eye movements, afferent, afferents, analysis, Animal, brain, canal, canal afferents, canals, clinical application, complex, Coordinate system, development, diagnostic, electrical stimulation, electronystagmography, ENG, eye, eye-movements, eye movement analysis, eye movements, eye muscles, Germany, human, humans, Listing's law, methods, movement, movement analysis, movements, muscle, muscles, Neurology, oculomotor, Oculomotor Muscles, oculomotor system, otolith, Otoliths, pathology, physiology, potential, reference frames, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, review, rotation, rotation vector, rotations, semicircular canal, semicircular canal afferents, semicircular canals, space, stimulation, studies, system, th_review, three-dimensional, three dimensional, unilateral, United States, vestibular, vestibular system},
Refid = {4835},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:10436471}
}

• M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, M. Bork, and J. Dichgans, “New insights into positional alcohol nystagmus using three-dimensional eye-movement analysis,” Ann.neurol., vol. 45, iss. 2, pp. 216-223, 1999.

The semicircular canals selectively transduce angular velocity and are normally insensitive to gravity and linear acceleration. In acute alcohol intoxication, however, the cupula becomes lighter than the endolymph, rendering it sensitive to gravity (buoyancy hypothesis). This results in positional alcohol nystagmus (PAN) and rotatory vertigo. We evaluated PAN in 8 normal subjects by means of three-dimensional eye-movement analysis in an attempt to clarify if the buoyancy mechanism is sufficient to explain PAN. Forty minutes after intake of 0.8 g of alcohol/kg of body weight, the subjects were positioned such that the lateral canals were earth vertical. They were then rotated in the plane of the lateral canals about an earth-horizontal axis to either 45 degrees or 90 degrees , right or left ear down, and eye movements were recorded for 40 seconds in each position. The spatial analysis of the responses showed that in addition to the nystagmus induced by the buoyancy of all six cupulae, alcohol intoxication also causes a vertical velocity offset (in all subjects, slow phase down) that is independent of the orientation of the subject in space. The offset may represent a toxic effect on central vestibular pathways, producing a tone imbalance of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex

@Article{Fetter1999b,
Title = {New insights into positional alcohol nystagmus using three-dimensional eye-movement analysis},
Author = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Bork, M. and Dichgans, J.},
Journal = {Ann.Neurol.},
Year = {1999},
Month = feb,
Number = {2},
Pages = {216--223},
Volume = {45},
Abstract = {The semicircular canals selectively transduce angular velocity and are normally insensitive to gravity and linear acceleration. In acute alcohol intoxication, however, the cupula becomes lighter than the endolymph, rendering it sensitive to gravity (buoyancy hypothesis). This results in positional alcohol nystagmus (PAN) and rotatory vertigo. We evaluated PAN in 8 normal subjects by means of three-dimensional eye-movement analysis in an attempt to clarify if the buoyancy mechanism is sufficient to explain PAN. Forty minutes after intake of 0.8 g of alcohol/kg of body weight, the subjects were positioned such that the lateral canals were earth vertical. They were then rotated in the plane of the lateral canals about an earth-horizontal axis to either 45 degrees or 90 degrees , right or left ear down, and eye movements were recorded for 40 seconds in each position. The spatial analysis of the responses showed that in addition to the nystagmus induced by the buoyancy of all six cupulae, alcohol intoxication also causes a vertical velocity offset (in all subjects, slow phase down) that is independent of the orientation of the subject in space. The offset may represent a toxic effect on central vestibular pathways, producing a tone imbalance of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tubingen, Germany},
Comment = {UI - 99142730 DA - 19990329 IS - 0364-5134 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - UNITED STATES RN - 64-17-5 (Ethanol) SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {acceleration, administration & dosage, Adult, alcohol, analysis, canal, canals, cupula, drug effects, ear, earth horizontal axis, effect, endolymph, ENG, Ethanol, eye, eye-movements, eye movement analysis, eye movements, Female, Germany, gravity, human, imbalance, lateral, lateral canal, linear, linear acceleration, Male, mechanism, movement, movements, Neurology, normal, nystagmus, Nystagmus,Pathologic, orientation, PAN, phase, physiology, physiopathology, position, posture, Reflex, response, RESPONSES, result, results, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, slow-phase, slow phase, space, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional, United States, velocity, vertical, vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex, vertical vestibuloocular reflex, vertigo, vestibular, vestibular pathways, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {4829},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:9989624}
}

• T. Haslwanter and L. B. Minor, “Nystagmus induced by circular head shaking in normal human subjects,” Exp.brain res., vol. 124, iss. 1, pp. 25-32, 1999.

@Article{Haslwanter1999,
Title = {Nystagmus induced by circular head shaking in normal human subjects},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Minor, L.B.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1999},
Month = jan,
Number = {1},
Pages = {25--32},
Volume = {124},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Tubingen, Germany. thomash@uni-tuebingen.de},
Comment = {DA - 19990329 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, analysis, canal, canal planes, canals, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye velocity, eye-movements, function, Germany, head, head movement, head movements, human, human subjects, Magnetics, method, methods, movement, movements, Neurology, normal, nystagmus, Nystagmus,Optokinetic, oscillation, oscillations, phase, physiology, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, roll, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, signal, slow phase, slow phase eye velocity, slow-phase, stimulation, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S., three dimensional, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements, Three-dimensional head movements, torsion, torsional nystagmus, transfer, transfer function, velocity, vertical, vestibular, vestibular function},
Refid = {5837},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:9928786}
}

• T. Haslwanter, D. Tweed, and M. Fetter, “Drehung erm”glicht scharfes bild,” Ophthalmologische nachrichten, vol. 2, pp. 28-29, 1999.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Haslwanter1999a,
Title = {Drehung erm”glicht scharfes Bild},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Tweed, D. and Fetter, M.},
Journal = {Ophthalmologische Nachrichten},
Year = {1999},
Pages = {28--29},
Volume = {2},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {th_not_rev},
Refid = {4858},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “3d video-oculography,” Homepage vestibulo-ocular lab, zurich, p. –, 1999.
@Other{Haslwanter1999b,
Title = {3D Video-Oculography},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Homepage Vestibulo-Ocular Lab, Zurich},
Keywords = {video-oculography},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {4428},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {http://web.unispital.ch/neurologie/vest/workshop.html},
Year = {1999}
}

• T. Haslwanter, B. J. M. Hess, and S. Aw, “Dynamic shift of primary position in humans,” in Soc.neurosci.abstr., 1999, pp. 660-660.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter1999c,
Title = {Dynamic shift of primary position in humans},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Hess, B.J.M. and Aw, S.},
Booktitle = {Soc.Neurosci.Abstr.},
Year = {1999},
Number = {Part 1},
Pages = {660--660},
Volume = {25},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {position, humans, human},
Refid = {4336},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter and L. B. Minor, “Curicular head-shaking: a new way of tesing the vertical canals?,” Archives italiennes de biologie, vol. 137, iss. Suppl, pp. 46-46, 1999.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Haslwanter1999d,
Title = {Curicular head-shaking: a new way of tesing the vertical canals?},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Minor, L.B.},
Journal = {Archives Italiennes de Biologie},
Year = {1999},
Number = {Suppl},
Pages = {46--46},
Volume = {137},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {3-D eye movements, semi-circular canals, vertical canal},
Refid = {4233},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, R. Jaeger, and M. Fetter, “Otolith-canal interaction during pitch while rotating,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 871, pp. 410-413, 1999.
@Article{Haslwanter1999e,
Title = {Otolith-canal interaction during pitch while rotating},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Jaeger, R. and Fetter, M.},
Year = {1999},
Month = may,
Pages = {410--413},
Volume = {871},
Address = {Department of Neurology, University Hospital Tubingen, Germany haslwant@neurolunizhchPMID- 0010372093},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {Adult, eye movements, head, human, movement, Oscillometry, Otolithic Membrane, physiology, rotation, semicircular canals, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_not_rev, Time Factors},
Refid = {4119},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM: 10372093}
}

• Z. Kapoula, M. Bernotas, and T. Haslwanter, “Listing’s plane rotation with convergence: role of disparity, accommodation, and depth perception,” Exp.brain res., vol. 126, iss. 2, pp. 175-186, 1999.

Earlier studies have reported temporal rotation of Listing’s plane with convergence of the eyes causing torsion, which is dependent on eye elevation. The amount by which the planes rotate differs from study to study. To gain insight into the functional significance of the temporal tilt of Listing’s plane for vision, we examined whether the rotation of the plane depends on the visual conditions, namely on the stimuli driving vergence. In different conditions, accommodative vergence, disparity-vergence, combinations of disparity with accommodation or depth perception were used and the resulting rotation of Listing’s plane was measured. Our findings show, for the first time, that the relationship between convergence and Listing’s-plane temporal rotation depends on the stimuli driving vergence. When the stimulus contains only disparity cues, vergence and Listing’s plane rotate immediately and consistently among subjects. Accommodative vergence, the mutual couplings between vergence and accommodation, can influence the orientation of Listing’s plane, but they do so in a idiosyncratic way. The largest rotation was elicited by stereograms combining disparity-vergence with depth perception. These findings support the idea of a functional role of Listing’s plane rotation for binocular vision, perhaps for depth perception

@Article{Kapoula1999,
Title = {Listing's plane rotation with convergence: role of disparity, accommodation, and depth perception},
Author = {Kapoula, Z. and Bernotas, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1999},
Month = may,
Number = {2},
Pages = {175--186},
Volume = {126},
Abstract = {Earlier studies have reported temporal rotation of Listing's plane with convergence of the eyes causing torsion, which is dependent on eye elevation. The amount by which the planes rotate differs from study to study. To gain insight into the functional significance of the temporal tilt of Listing's plane for vision, we examined whether the rotation of the plane depends on the visual conditions, namely on the stimuli driving vergence. In different conditions, accommodative vergence, disparity-vergence, combinations of disparity with accommodation or depth perception were used and the resulting rotation of Listing's plane was measured. Our findings show, for the first time, that the relationship between convergence and Listing's-plane temporal rotation depends on the stimuli driving vergence. When the stimulus contains only disparity cues, vergence and Listing's plane rotate immediately and consistently among subjects. Accommodative vergence, the mutual couplings between vergence and accommodation, can influence the orientation of Listing's plane, but they do so in a idiosyncratic way. The largest rotation was elicited by stereograms combining disparity-vergence with depth perception. These findings support the idea of a functional role of Listing's plane rotation for binocular vision, perhaps for depth perception},
Address = {Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, UMR 9950 CNRS-College de France, Paris. zk@ccr.jussieu.fr},
Comment = {DA - 19990723 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {accommodation, Accommodation,Ocular, accommodative vergence, Adult, binocular, binocular vision, convergence, Cues, depth, Depth Perception, Disparity, ENG, eye, Female, Fixation,Ocular, gain, human, laterality, Listing's plane, Male, Middle Aged, orientation, perception, physiology, Regression Analysis, rotation, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, temporal, tilt, torsion, vergence, vision, Vision Disparity, visual},
Refid = {5838},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:10369140}
}

• Z. Kapoula, M. Bernotas, and T. Haslwanter, “Listing’s plane orientation with vergence: effect of disparity and accommodation,” in Current oculomotor research: physiological and psychological aspects, W. Becker, H. Deubel, and T. Mergner, Eds., New York: Plenum, 1999, pp. 165-174.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Kapoula1999a,
Title = {Listing's plane orientation with vergence: effect of disparity and accommodation},
Author = {Kapoula, Z. and Bernotas, M. and Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Current Oculomotor Research: Physiological and Psychological Aspects},
Publisher = {Plenum},
Year = {1999},
Editor = {Becker, W. and Deubel, H. and Mergner, T.},
Pages = {165--174},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {accommodation, current, Disparity, effect, Listing's plane, oculomotor, orientation, th_not_rev, vergence},
Refid = {4857},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• L. B. Minor, T. Haslwanter, D. Straumann, and D. S. Zee, “Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma,” Neurology, vol. 53, iss. 9, pp. 2158-2168, 1999.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nystagmus evoked by hyperventilation in patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma and to use this information to predict the effects of hyperventilation on individual ampullary nerves. METHODS: Three-dimensional scleral search coil eye movement recording techniques were used to record the magnitude and time course of eye movements in six patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma and hyperventilation-induced nystagmus. The presenting complaints in five of these patients were vertigo or dysequilibrium. RESULTS: The eye movement response to hyperventilation was a "recovery" nystagmus with slow-phase components corresponding to excitation of the affected vestibular nerve. Projection of the eye velocity vector into the plane of the semicircular canals revealed that fibers arising from the ampulla of the horizontal canal were most affected by hyperventilation with lesser activation of fibers to the superior canal and smaller, more variable responses from posterior canal fibers. CONCLUSIONS: The three-dimensional characteristics of the nystagmus evoked by hyperventilation in patients with vestibular schwannoma provide insight into the vestibular end organs affected by the tumor and the mechanism responsible for the nystagmus. This finding indicates that hyperventilation resulted in a transient increase in activity from these partially demyelinated axons

@Article{Minor1999,
Title = {Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma},
Author = {Minor, L.B. and Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D. and Zee, D.S.},
Journal = {Neurology},
Year = {1999},
Month = dec,
Number = {9},
Pages = {2158--2168},
Volume = {53},
Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nystagmus evoked by hyperventilation in patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma and to use this information to predict the effects of hyperventilation on individual ampullary nerves. METHODS: Three-dimensional scleral search coil eye movement recording techniques were used to record the magnitude and time course of eye movements in six patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma and hyperventilation-induced nystagmus. The presenting complaints in five of these patients were vertigo or dysequilibrium. RESULTS: The eye movement response to hyperventilation was a "recovery" nystagmus with slow-phase components corresponding to excitation of the affected vestibular nerve. Projection of the eye velocity vector into the plane of the semicircular canals revealed that fibers arising from the ampulla of the horizontal canal were most affected by hyperventilation with lesser activation of fibers to the superior canal and smaller, more variable responses from posterior canal fibers. CONCLUSIONS: The three-dimensional characteristics of the nystagmus evoked by hyperventilation in patients with vestibular schwannoma provide insight into the vestibular end organs affected by the tumor and the mechanism responsible for the nystagmus. This finding indicates that hyperventilation resulted in a transient increase in activity from these partially demyelinated axons},
Address = {Department of Otolaryngology-Head \& Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0910, USA},
Comment = {DA - 20000104 IS - 0028-3878 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - AIM SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {activity, Adult, axon, axons, canal, canals, diagnosis, Dominance,Cerebral, dysequilibrium, effect, electronystagmography, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye velocity, eye-movements, Female, fiber, horizontal canal, human, hyperventilation, innervation, magnetic resonance imaging, Male, mechanism, method, methods, movement, movements, neck, nerve, nerves, Neuroma,Acoustic, nystagmus, patients, physiology, physiopathology, posterior canal, projection, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, response, RESPONSES, result, results, schwannoma, search coil, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, slow phase, slow-phase, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S., surgery, three dimensional, three-dimensional, transient, tumor, unilateral, velocity, vertigo, vestibular, vestibular nerve, vestibular schwannoma, vestibular-nerve},
Refid = {5839},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:10599798}
}

• D. B. Tweed, T. P. Haslwanter, V. Happe, and M. Fetter, “Non-commutativity in the brain,” Nature, vol. 399, iss. 6733, pp. 261-263, 1999.

In non-commutative algebra, order makes a difference to multiplication, so that a x b not equal to b x a. This feature is necessary for computing rotary motion, because order makes a difference to the combined effect of two rotations. It has therefore been proposed that there are non-commutative operators in the brain circuits that deal with rotations, including motor circuits that steer the eyes, head and limbs, and sensory circuits that handle spatial information. This idea is controversial: studies of eye and head control have revealed behaviours that are consistent with non-commutativity in the brain, but none that clearly rules out all commutative models. Here we demonstrate non-commutative computation in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. We show that subjects rotated in darkness can hold their gaze points stable in space, correctly computing different final eye-position commands when put through the same two rotations in different orders, in a way that is unattainable by any commutative system

@Article{Tweed1999,
Title = {Non-commutativity in the brain},
Author = {Tweed, D.B. and Haslwanter, T.P. and Happe, V. and Fetter, M.},
Journal = {Nature},
Year = {1999},
Month = may,
Number = {6733},
Pages = {261--263},
Volume = {399},
Abstract = {In non-commutative algebra, order makes a difference to multiplication, so that a x b not equal to b x a. This feature is necessary for computing rotary motion, because order makes a difference to the combined effect of two rotations. It has therefore been proposed that there are non-commutative operators in the brain circuits that deal with rotations, including motor circuits that steer the eyes, head and limbs, and sensory circuits that handle spatial information. This idea is controversial: studies of eye and head control have revealed behaviours that are consistent with non-commutativity in the brain, but none that clearly rules out all commutative models. Here we demonstrate non-commutative computation in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. We show that subjects rotated in darkness can hold their gaze points stable in space, correctly computing different final eye-position commands when put through the same two rotations in different orders, in a way that is unattainable by any commutative system},
Comment = {DA - 19990616 IS - 0028-0836 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, behaviour, brain, Computer Simulation, control, Darkness, effect, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, Gaze, head, human, model, models, Models,Neurological, motion, motion perception, physiology, Reflex, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, rotation, rotations, space, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, system, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {5829},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:10353248}
}

### 1998

• D. Anastasopoulos, T. Haslwanter, M. Fetter, and J. Dichgans, “Smooth pursuit eye movements and otolith-ocular responses are differently impaired in cerebellar ataxia,” Brain, vol. 121 ( Pt 8), pp. 1497-1505, 1998.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Anastasopoulos1998a,
Title = {Smooth pursuit eye movements and otolith-ocular responses are differently impaired in cerebellar ataxia},
Author = {Anastasopoulos, D. and Haslwanter, T. and Fetter, M. and Dichgans, J.},
Journal = {Brain},
Year = {1998},
Month = aug,
Pages = {1497--1505},
Volume = {121 ( Pt 8)},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tubingen, GermanyPMID- 0009712011},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, analysis of variance, cerebellar ataxia, eye, Fixation,Ocular, human, Middle Age, Otolithic Membrane, physiology, physiopathology, Pursuit,Smooth, Reference Values, rotation, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev, Time Factors},
Refid = {4049},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• S. T. Aw, T. Haslwanter, M. Fetter, J. Heimberger, and M. J. Todd, “Contribution of the vertical semicircular canals to the caloric nystagmus,” Acta otolaryngol, vol. 118, iss. 5, pp. 618-627, 1998.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Aw1998,
Title = {Contribution of the vertical semicircular canals to the caloric nystagmus},
Author = {Aw, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Fetter, M. and Heimberger, J. and Todd, M.J.},
Journal = {Acta Otolaryngol},
Year = {1998},
Month = sep,
Number = {5},
Pages = {618--627},
Volume = {118},
Address = {Neurology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW, Sydney, Australia sweeo@icnusydeduauPMID- 0009840495},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, caloric test, head, human, instrumentation, methods, Nystagmus,Physiologic, physiology, posture, Reference Values, rotation, semicircular canals, statistics & numerical data, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev},
Refid = {4047},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• I. S. Curthoys, T. Haslwanter, R. A. Black, A. M. Burgess, G. M. Halmagyi, A. N. Topple, and M. J. Todd, “Off-center yaw rotation: effect of naso-occipital linear acceleration on the nystagmus response of normal human subjects and patients after unilateral vestibular loss,” Exp.brain res., vol. 123, iss. 4, pp. 425-438, 1998.

@Article{Curthoys1998,
Title = {Off-center yaw rotation: effect of naso-occipital linear acceleration on the nystagmus response of normal human subjects and patients after unilateral vestibular loss},
Author = {Curthoys, I.S. and Haslwanter, T. and Black, R.A. and Burgess, A.M. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Topple, A.N. and Todd, M.J.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1998},
Month = dec,
Number = {4},
Pages = {425--438},
Volume = {123},
Address = {Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. ianc@psych.usyd.edu.au},
Comment = {DA - 19990311 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {acceleration, Adult, angular acceleration, ANGULAR-ACCELERATION, arm, center, center of rotation, Centrifugation, centrifuge, contrast, control, Deceleration, dual search coil, dumping, effect, ENG, eye, eye velocity, head, head movements, heading, human, human subjects, humans, interaction, labyrinth, linear, linear acceleration, loss, Middle Aged, monkey, monkeys, movement, normal, nystagmus, Nystagmus,Pathologic, otolith canal, Otolithic Membrane, patients, physiology, physiopathology, pitch, Post-rotatory nystagmus, postrotatory nystagmus, psychology, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, response, result, results, rotation, search coil, size, stimulation, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S., surgery, time constant, torsion, torsional eye movement, unilateral, unit, velocity, vertical, vertical eye velocity, vestibular, vestibular control, vestibular loss, yaw},
Refid = {5832},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:9870602}
}

• M. Fetter, S. Aw, T. Haslwanter, J. Heimberger, and J. Dichgans, “Three-dimensional eye movement analysis during caloric stimulation used to test vertical semicircular canal function,” Am.j.otol., vol. 19, iss. 2, pp. 180-187, 1998.

HYPOTHESIS AND BACKGROUND: Quantitative caloric testing is considered to be one of the most sensitive parameters in the diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders. In the past, because of limitations in the methods, the evaluation of the caloric response was restricted to mainly lateral semicircular canal functions. In this study, the authors tried to extend caloric testing to the function of all semicircular canals by using three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques. METHODS: The authors studied in seven normal subjects 3-D eye movement responses to air caloric of the right ear with the subjects positioned in standard caloric position (lateral semicircular canal vertical) or such that one of the three semicircular canals of the right side was horizontal. Movement of the left eye was measured in 3-D with a dual-magnetic search coil. During stimulation, 10 seconds of maximum response were selected and desaccaded to yield the slow-phase velocity profile. From this profile, the average magnitude and direction of the eye rotation axis (velocity vector) were calculated in head coordinates. RESULTS: In all subjects, in standard caloric position, warm caloric produced eye velocity vectors that clustered closely along the direction expected from an excitation of the right lateral semicircular canal. When the subjects were positioned with one of the vertical semicircular canals horizontal, the orientation of the velocity vectors shifted toward a direction expected from the combined excitation of the lateral and the other vertical semicircular canal and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-D eye movement recordings during caloric stimulation in different head positions allow the evaluation of the function of all semicircular canals

@Article{Fetter1998,
Title = {Three-dimensional eye movement analysis during caloric stimulation used to test vertical semicircular canal function},
Author = {Fetter, M. and Aw, S. and Haslwanter, T. and Heimberger, J. and Dichgans, J.},
Journal = {Am.J.Otol.},
Year = {1998},
Month = mar,
Number = {2},
Pages = {180--187},
Volume = {19},
Abstract = {HYPOTHESIS AND BACKGROUND: Quantitative caloric testing is considered to be one of the most sensitive parameters in the diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders. In the past, because of limitations in the methods, the evaluation of the caloric response was restricted to mainly lateral semicircular canal functions. In this study, the authors tried to extend caloric testing to the function of all semicircular canals by using three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques. METHODS: The authors studied in seven normal subjects 3-D eye movement responses to air caloric of the right ear with the subjects positioned in standard caloric position (lateral semicircular canal vertical) or such that one of the three semicircular canals of the right side was horizontal. Movement of the left eye was measured in 3-D with a dual-magnetic search coil. During stimulation, 10 seconds of maximum response were selected and desaccaded to yield the slow-phase velocity profile. From this profile, the average magnitude and direction of the eye rotation axis (velocity vector) were calculated in head coordinates. RESULTS: In all subjects, in standard caloric position, warm caloric produced eye velocity vectors that clustered closely along the direction expected from an excitation of the right lateral semicircular canal. When the subjects were positioned with one of the vertical semicircular canals horizontal, the orientation of the velocity vectors shifted toward a direction expected from the combined excitation of the lateral and the other vertical semicircular canal and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-D eye movement recordings during caloric stimulation in different head positions allow the evaluation of the function of all semicircular canals},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tubingen, Germany},
Comment = {DA - 19980623 IS - 0192-9763 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, air caloric, analysis, caloric, caloric response, caloric stimulation, Caloric Tests, canal, canals, diagnosis, direction, disorders, ear, ENG, evaluation, eye, eye movement analysis, eye movements, eye velocity, Female, function, functions, Germany, head, head position, human, instrumentation, lateral, lateral semicircular canal, Magnetics, Male, method, methods, Middle Aged, movement, movement analysis, Neurology, normal, orientation, peripheral, peripheral vestibular disorder, peripheral vestibular disorders, physiology, position, quantitative, recordings, response, RESPONSES, result, results, rotation, search coil, semicircular canal, semicircular canals, slow phase, slow-phase, slow-phase velocity, stimulation, studies, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, test, three dimensional, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, velocity, vertical, vertical semicircular canal, vertical semicircular canals, vestibular, vestibular disorder, vestibular disorders},
Refid = {5833},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:9520054}
}

• D. Tweed, T. Haslwanter, and M. Fetter, “Optimizing gaze control in three dimensions,” Science, vol. 281, iss. 5381, pp. 1363-1366, 1998.

Horizontal and vertical movements of the human eye bring new objects to the center of the visual field, but torsional movements rotate the visual world about its center. Ocular torsion stays near zero during head-fixed gaze shifts, and eye movements to visual targets are thought to be driven by purely horizontal and vertical commands. Here, analysis of eye-head gaze shifts revealed that gaze commands were three-dimensional, with a separate neural control system for torsion. Active torsion optimized gaze control as no two-dimensional system could have, stabilizing the retinal image as quickly as possible when it would otherwise have spun around the fixation point

@Article{Tweed1998,
Title = {Optimizing gaze control in three dimensions},
Author = {Tweed, D. and Haslwanter, T. and Fetter, M.},
Journal = {Science},
Year = {1998},
Month = aug,
Number = {5381},
Pages = {1363--1366},
Volume = {281},
Abstract = {Horizontal and vertical movements of the human eye bring new objects to the center of the visual field, but torsional movements rotate the visual world about its center. Ocular torsion stays near zero during head-fixed gaze shifts, and eye movements to visual targets are thought to be driven by purely horizontal and vertical commands. Here, analysis of eye-head gaze shifts revealed that gaze commands were three-dimensional, with a separate neural control system for torsion. Active torsion optimized gaze control as no two-dimensional system could have, stabilizing the retinal image as quickly as possible when it would otherwise have spun around the fixation point},
Comment = {DA - 19980909 IS - 0036-8075 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, analysis, center, Computer Simulation, control, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye-movements, feedback, fixation, Fixation,Ocular, Gaze, Gaze control, gaze shift, gaze shifts, head movements, human, Models,Biological, movement, movements, ocular, ocular torsion, Oculomotor Muscles, Ontario, physiology, retinal, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, system, three dimensional, three-dimensional, torsion, vertical, vision, visual},
Refid = {5842},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:9721104}
}

### 1997

• D. Anastasopoulos, T. Haslwanter, A. Bronstein, M. Fetter, and J. Dichgans, “Dissociation between the perception of body verticality and the visual vertical in acute peripheral vestibular disorder in humans,” Neurosci.lett., vol. 233, iss. 2-3, pp. 151-153, 1997.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Anastasopoulos1997,
Title = {Dissociation between the perception of body verticality and the visual vertical in acute peripheral vestibular disorder in humans},
Author = {Anastasopoulos, D. and Haslwanter, T. and Bronstein, A. and Fetter, M. and Dichgans, J.},
Journal = {Neurosci.Lett.},
Year = {1997},
Month = sep,
Number = {2-3},
Pages = {151--153},
Volume = {233},
Address = {Department of Neurology, Eberhard-Karls-Universitat Tubingen, GermanyPMID- 0009350855},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, Case-Control Studies, human, Middle Age, orientation, physiology, posture, psychology, th_rev, vestibular diseases, visual perception},
Refid = {4051},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• S. T. Aw, T. Haslwanter, G. M. Halmagyi, I. S. Curthoys, R. A. Yavor, and M. J. Todd, “3d analysis of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex during high-acceleration head rotations in normals and after unilateral vestibular deafferentation,” in Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements, M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, H. Misslisch, and D. Tweed, Eds., Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997, pp. 265-274.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Aw1997,
Title = {3d analysis of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex during high-acceleration head rotations in normals and after unilateral vestibular deafferentation},
Author = {Aw, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Curthoys, I.S. and Yavor, R.A. and Todd, M.J.},
Booktitle = {Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements},
Year = {1997},
Editor = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Misslisch, H. and Tweed, D.},
Pages = {265--274},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {analysis, deafferentation, eye, head, head rotation, human, human vestibuloocular reflex, kinematic, limb movements, movement, movements, normal, Reflex, rotation, rotations, th_not_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional, unilateral, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibuloocular reflex},
Refid = {4866},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• I. S. Curthoys, G. M. Halmagyi, R. A. Black, T. Haslwanter, and A. Topple, “Three-dimensional eye movement recordings during off-center yaw rotation of human subjects: how the linear vor modifies the angular vor.,” in Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements, M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, H. Misslisch, and D. Tweed, Eds., Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997, pp. 187-190.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Curthoys1997,
Title = {Three-dimensional eye movement recordings during off-center yaw rotation of human subjects: how the linear VOR modifies the angular VOR.},
Author = {Curthoys, I.S. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Black, R.A. and Haslwanter, T. and Topple, A.},
Booktitle = {Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements},
Year = {1997},
Editor = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Misslisch, H. and Tweed, D.},
Pages = {187--190},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {eye, head, human, human subjects, kinematic, limb movements, linear, linear VOR, movement, movements, recordings, rotation, th_not_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three dimensional, VOR, yaw},
Refid = {4566},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, H. Misslisch, and D. Tweed, Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements, M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, H. Misslisch, and D. Tweed, Eds., Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997.
[BibTeX]
@Book{Fetter1997,
Title = {Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements},
Author = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Misslisch, H. and Tweed, D.},
Editor = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Misslisch, H. and Tweed, D.},
Year = {1997},
Keywords = {eye, head, kinematic, limb movements, movement, movements, th_books, three-dimensional, three dimensional},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {4567},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Measurement and analysis techniques for 3d eye-movements,” in Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements, M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, H. Misslisch, and D. Tweed, Eds., Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Haslwanter1997,
Title = {Measurement and analysis techniques for 3d eye-movements},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements},
Year = {1997},
Editor = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Misslisch, H. and Tweed, D.},
Pages = {--},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {analysis, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, head, kinematic, movement, movements, th_not_rev},
Refid = {4223},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• S. T. Moore, I. S. Curthoys, T. Haslwanter, and G. M. Halmagyi, “Measuring 3d eye position using image processing – the vtm system,” in Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements, M. Fetter, T. Haslwanter, H. Misslisch, and D. Tweed, Eds., Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997, pp. 445-450.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Moore1997,
Title = {Measuring 3D eye position using image processing - the VTM system},
Author = {Moore, S.T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Haslwanter, T. and Halmagyi, G.M.},
Booktitle = {Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye-, head-, and limb movements},
Year = {1997},
Editor = {Fetter, M. and Haslwanter, T. and Misslisch, H. and Tweed, D.},
Pages = {445--450},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {eye, eye position, head, Image processing, kinematic, limb movements, movement, movements, position, system, th_not_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional},
Refid = {4860},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 1996

• S. T. Aw, T. Haslwanter, G. M. Halmagyi, I. S. Curthoys, R. A. Yavor, and M. J. Todd, “Three-dimensional vector analysis of the human vestibuloocular reflex in response to high-acceleration head rotations. i. responses in normal subjects,” J.neurophysiol., vol. 76, iss. 6, pp. 4009-4020, 1996.

{1. The kinematics of the human angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) in three dimensions was investigated in 12 normal subjects during high-acceleration head rotations (head "impulses"). A head impulse is a passive, unpredictable, high-acceleration (3,000-4,000 degrees/s2) head rotation of approximately 10-20 degrees in roll, pitch, or yaw, delivered with the subject in the upright position and focusing on a fixation target. Head and eye rotations were measured with dual search coils and expressed as rotation vectors. The first of these two papers describes a vector analysis of the three-dimensional input-output kinematics of the VOR as two indexes in the time domain: magnitude and direction. 2. Magnitude is expressed as speed gain (G) and direction as misalignment angle (delta). G is defined as the ratio of eye velocity magnitude (eye speed) to head velocity magnitude (head speed). delta is defined as the instantaneous angle by which the eye rotation axis deviates from perfect alignment with the head rotation axis in three dimensions. When the eye rotation axis aligns perfectly with the head rotation axis and when eye velocity is in a direction opposite to head velocity

@Article{Aw1996,
Title = {Three-dimensional vector analysis of the human vestibuloocular reflex in response to high-acceleration head rotations. I. Responses in normal subjects},
Author = {Aw, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Curthoys, I.S. and Yavor, R.A. and Todd, M.J.},
Journal = {J.Neurophysiol.},
Year = {1996},
Month = dec,
Number = {6},
Pages = {4009--4020},
Volume = {76},
Address = {Neurology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {DA - 19970402 IS - 0022-3077 LA - eng PT - Clinical Trial PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, analysis, Confidence Intervals, Data Interpretation,Statistical, direction, dual search coil, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye velocity, fixation, Fixation,Ocular, gain, head, head movements, head rotation, human, human vestibuloocular reflex, Impulse, kinematic, kinematics, latency, method, Middle Aged, Neurology, normal, orientation, physiology, pitch, position, projection, reaction time, Reference Values, Reflex, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, response, RESPONSES, roll, rotation, rotation vector, rotations, search coil, Spatial Behavior, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S., three dimensional, three-dimensional, time series, Torque, trial, values, velocity, vestibuloocular reflex, VOR, VOR gain, yaw},
Refid = {5831},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:8985896}
}

• S. T. Aw, G. M. Halmagyi, T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, R. A. Yavor, and M. J. Todd, “Three-dimensional vector analysis of the human vestibuloocular reflex in response to high-acceleration head rotations. ii. responses in subjects with unilateral vestibular loss and selective semicircular canal occlusion,” J.neurophysiol., vol. 76, iss. 6, pp. 4021-4030, 1996.

1. We studied the three-dimensional input-output human vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) kinematics after selective loss of semicircular canal (SCC) function either through total unilateral vestibular deafferentation (uVD) or through single posterior SCC occlusion (uPCO), and showed large deficits in magnitude and direction in response to high-acceleration head rotations (head "impulses"). 2. A head impulse is a passive, unpredictable, high-acceleration (3,000-4,000 degrees/s2) head rotation through an amplitude of 10-20 degrees in roll, pitch, or yaw. The subjects were tested while seated in the upright position and focusing on a fixation target. Head and eye rotations were measured with the use of dual search coils, and were expressed as rotation vectors. A three-dimensional vector analysis was performed on the input-output VOR kinematics after uVD, to produce two indexes in the time domain: magnitude and direction. Magnitude is expressed as speed gain (G) and direction as misalignment angle (delta). 3. G. after uVD, was significantly lower than normal in both directions of head rotation during roll, pitch, and yaw impulses, and were much lower during ipsilesional than during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. At 80 ms from the onset of an impulse (i.e., near peak head velocity), G was 0.23 +/- 0.08 (SE) (ipsilesional) and 0.56 +/- 0.08 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 0.61 +/- 0.09 (up) and 0.72 +/- 0.10 (down) for pitch impulses, and 0.36 +/- 0.06 (ipsilesional) and 0.76 +/- 0.09 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). 4. delta, after uVD, was significantly different from normal during ipsilesional roll and yaw impulses and during pitch-up and pitch-down impulses. delta was normal during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. At 80 ms from the onset of the impulse, delta was 30.6 +/- 4.5 (ipsilesional) and 13.4 +/- 5.0 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 23.7 +/- 3.7 (up) and 31.6 +/- 4.4 (down) for pitch impulses, and 68.7 +/- 13.2 (ipsilesional) and 11.0 +/- 3.3 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). 5. VOR gain (gamma), after uVD, were significantly lower than normal for both directions of roll, pitch, and yaw impulses and much lower during ipsilesional than during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. At 80 ms from the onset of the head impulse, the gamma was 0.22 +/- 0.08 (ipsilesional) and 0.54 +/- 0.09 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 0.55 +/- 0.09 (up) and 0.61 +/- 0.09 (down) for pitch impulses, and 0.14 +/- 0.10 (ipsilesional) and 0.74 +/- 0.06 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). Because gamma is equal to [G*cos (delta)], it is significantly different from its corresponding G during ipsilesional roll and yaw, and during all pitch impulses, but not during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. 6. After uPCO, pitch-vertical gamma during pitch-up impulses was reduced to the same extent as after uVD; roll-torsional gamma during ipsilesional roll impulses was significantly lower than normal but significantly higher than after uVD. At 80 ms from the onset of the head impulse, gamma was 0.32 +/- 0.13 (ipsilesional) and 0.55 +/- 0.16 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 0.51 +/- 0.12 (up) and 0.91 +/- 0.14 (down) for pitch impulses, and 0.76 +/- 0.06 (ipsilesional) and 0.73 +/- 0.09 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). 7. The eye rotation axis, after uVD, deviates in the yaw plane, away from the normal interaural axis, toward the nasooccipital axis, during all pitch impulses. After uPCO, the eye rotation axis deviates in same direction as after uVD during pitch-up impulses, but is well aligned with the head rotation axis during pitch-down impulses

@Article{Aw1996a,
Title = {Three-dimensional vector analysis of the human vestibuloocular reflex in response to high-acceleration head rotations. II. responses in subjects with unilateral vestibular loss and selective semicircular canal occlusion},
Author = {Aw, S.T. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Yavor, R.A. and Todd, M.J.},
Journal = {J.Neurophysiol.},
Year = {1996},
Month = dec,
Number = {6},
Pages = {4021--4030},
Volume = {76},
Abstract = {1. We studied the three-dimensional input-output human vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) kinematics after selective loss of semicircular canal (SCC) function either through total unilateral vestibular deafferentation (uVD) or through single posterior SCC occlusion (uPCO), and showed large deficits in magnitude and direction in response to high-acceleration head rotations (head "impulses"). 2. A head impulse is a passive, unpredictable, high-acceleration (3,000-4,000 degrees/s2) head rotation through an amplitude of 10-20 degrees in roll, pitch, or yaw. The subjects were tested while seated in the upright position and focusing on a fixation target. Head and eye rotations were measured with the use of dual search coils, and were expressed as rotation vectors. A three-dimensional vector analysis was performed on the input-output VOR kinematics after uVD, to produce two indexes in the time domain: magnitude and direction. Magnitude is expressed as speed gain (G) and direction as misalignment angle (delta). 3. G. after uVD, was significantly lower than normal in both directions of head rotation during roll, pitch, and yaw impulses, and were much lower during ipsilesional than during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. At 80 ms from the onset of an impulse (i.e., near peak head velocity), G was 0.23 +/- 0.08 (SE) (ipsilesional) and 0.56 +/- 0.08 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 0.61 +/- 0.09 (up) and 0.72 +/- 0.10 (down) for pitch impulses, and 0.36 +/- 0.06 (ipsilesional) and 0.76 +/- 0.09 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). 4. delta, after uVD, was significantly different from normal during ipsilesional roll and yaw impulses and during pitch-up and pitch-down impulses. delta was normal during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. At 80 ms from the onset of the impulse, delta was 30.6 +/- 4.5 (ipsilesional) and 13.4 +/- 5.0 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 23.7 +/- 3.7 (up) and 31.6 +/- 4.4 (down) for pitch impulses, and 68.7 +/- 13.2 (ipsilesional) and 11.0 +/- 3.3 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). 5. VOR gain (gamma), after uVD, were significantly lower than normal for both directions of roll, pitch, and yaw impulses and much lower during ipsilesional than during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. At 80 ms from the onset of the head impulse, the gamma was 0.22 +/- 0.08 (ipsilesional) and 0.54 +/- 0.09 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 0.55 +/- 0.09 (up) and 0.61 +/- 0.09 (down) for pitch impulses, and 0.14 +/- 0.10 (ipsilesional) and 0.74 +/- 0.06 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). Because gamma is equal to [G*cos (delta)], it is significantly different from its corresponding G during ipsilesional roll and yaw, and during all pitch impulses, but not during contralesional roll and yaw impulses. 6. After uPCO, pitch-vertical gamma during pitch-up impulses was reduced to the same extent as after uVD; roll-torsional gamma during ipsilesional roll impulses was significantly lower than normal but significantly higher than after uVD. At 80 ms from the onset of the head impulse, gamma was 0.32 +/- 0.13 (ipsilesional) and 0.55 +/- 0.16 (contralesional) for roll impulses, 0.51 +/- 0.12 (up) and 0.91 +/- 0.14 (down) for pitch impulses, and 0.76 +/- 0.06 (ipsilesional) and 0.73 +/- 0.09 (contralesional) for yaw impulses (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals). 7. The eye rotation axis, after uVD, deviates in the yaw plane, away from the normal interaural axis, toward the nasooccipital axis, during all pitch impulses. After uPCO, the eye rotation axis deviates in same direction as after uVD during pitch-up impulses, but is well aligned with the head rotation axis during pitch-down impulses},
Address = {Neurology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {DA - 19970402 IS - 0022-3077 LA - eng PT - Clinical Trial PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Adult, Afferent Pathways, Aged, analysis, canal, Confidence Intervals, Data Interpretation,Statistical, deafferentation, deficits, direction, dual search coil, ENG, eye, eye movements, fixation, Fixation,Ocular, function, gain, head, head movements, head rotation, human, human vestibuloocular reflex, Impulse, kinematic, kinematics, laterality, loss, Middle Aged, Neurology, normal, physiology, physiopathology, pitch, position, Reflex, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, response, RESPONSES, roll, rotation, rotation vector, rotations, search coil, semicircular canal, semicircular canal occlusion, semicircular canals, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, three dimensional, three-dimensional, Torque, trial, unilateral, velocity, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation, vestibular loss, vestibule, vestibuloocular reflex, VOR, VOR gain, yaw},
Refid = {5830},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:8985897}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Eye movement analysis with search coils and video systems,” in Interdisciplinary aspects on computers helping people with special needs, Linz, Austria, 1996, pp. 393-399.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Haslwanter1996,
Title = {Eye movement analysis with search coils and video systems},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Booktitle = {Interdisciplinary aspects on computers helping people with special needs},
Year = {1996},
Pages = {393--399},
Volume = {1},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {analysis, eye, eye movement analysis, movement, movement analysis, search coil, system, th_not_rev, video},
Refid = {4861},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, R. A. Black, A. N. Topple, and G. M. Halmagyi, “The three-dimensional human vestibulo-ocular reflex: response to long- duration yaw angular accelerations,” Exp.brain res., vol. 109, iss. 2, pp. 303-311, 1996.

We recorded three-dimensional eye movements during angular acceleration steps from 0 to 250 degrees/s at 20 degrees/s2 about an earth-vertical axis. Experiments were performed on 27 normal subjects and on 19 patients who had recovered well from unilateral vestibular deafferentation on the right or left side. In addition to compensatory horizontal eye movements, significant vertical and torsional eye movement components were elicited. These vertical and torsional eye velocity traces led to a shift of the axis of eye velocity away from the axis of head velocity. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional velocity components showed clear differences between normals and patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation. In normals, the axis of eye velocity tilted backward and slightly away from the axis of head velocity. Patients showed similar, but more pronounced, shifts during rotations toward the intact ear and shifts in the opposite direction for rotations toward the operated ear. Eye velocity traces were analyzed with special consideration given to the orientation of the axis of eye velocity. We speculate that the vertical and torsional velocity components may be due to the effects of Listing’s plane, as well as the contributions of the otolith signals

@Article{Haslwanter1996a,
Title = {The three-dimensional human vestibulo-ocular reflex: response to long- duration yaw angular accelerations},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Black, R.A. and Topple, A.N. and Halmagyi, G.M.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1996},
Month = may,
Number = {2},
Pages = {303--311},
Volume = {109},
Abstract = {We recorded three-dimensional eye movements during angular acceleration steps from 0 to 250 degrees/s at 20 degrees/s2 about an earth-vertical axis. Experiments were performed on 27 normal subjects and on 19 patients who had recovered well from unilateral vestibular deafferentation on the right or left side. In addition to compensatory horizontal eye movements, significant vertical and torsional eye movement components were elicited. These vertical and torsional eye velocity traces led to a shift of the axis of eye velocity away from the axis of head velocity. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional velocity components showed clear differences between normals and patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation. In normals, the axis of eye velocity tilted backward and slightly away from the axis of head velocity. Patients showed similar, but more pronounced, shifts during rotations toward the intact ear and shifts in the opposite direction for rotations toward the operated ear. Eye velocity traces were analyzed with special consideration given to the orientation of the axis of eye velocity. We speculate that the vertical and torsional velocity components may be due to the effects of Listing's plane, as well as the contributions of the otolith signals},
Address = {Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. ianc@psychvax.psych.su.oz.au},
Comment = {UI - 96346811 LA - eng PT - Journal Article DA - 19961203 IS - 0014-4819 SB - IM CY - GERMANY JC - EP2
reviewed},
Keywords = {acceleration, Adult, angular acceleration, deafferentation, direction, ear, earth vertical axis, effect, ENG, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, eye velocity, Female, Germany, head, human, human vestibuloocular reflex, Listing's plane, Male, Middle Age, movement, movements, normal, orientation, otolith, Otolithic Membrane, patients, physiology, psychology, Reflex, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, response, rotation, rotations, signal, signals, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements, three dimensional, Time Factors, torsional eye movement, unilateral, velocity, vertical, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation, vestibulo-ocular, Vestibulo-ocular-reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibuloocular reflex, yaw, yaw angular acceleration},
Refid = {4663},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:8738378}
}

• S. T. Moore, T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, and S. T. Smith, “A geometric basis for measurement of three-dimensional eye position using image processing,” Vision res., vol. 36, iss. 3, pp. 445-459, 1996.

Polar cross correlation is commonly used for determination of ocular torsion from video images, but breaks down at eccentric positions if the spherical geometry of the eye is not considered. We have extended this method to allow three-dimensional eye position measurement over a range of +/- 20 deg by determining the correct projection of the eye onto the image plane of the camera. We also determine the orientation of the camera with respect to the eye, allowing eye position to be represented in appropriate head-fixed coordinates. These algorithms have been validated using both in vitro and in vivo measures of eye position

@Article{Moore1996,
Title = {A geometric basis for measurement of three-dimensional eye position using image processing},
Author = {Moore, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Smith, S.T.},
Journal = {Vision Res.},
Year = {1996},
Month = feb,
Number = {3},
Pages = {445--459},
Volume = {36},
Abstract = {Polar cross correlation is commonly used for determination of ocular torsion from video images, but breaks down at eccentric positions if the spherical geometry of the eye is not considered. We have extended this method to allow three-dimensional eye position measurement over a range of +/- 20 deg by determining the correct projection of the eye onto the image plane of the camera. We also determine the orientation of the camera with respect to the eye, allowing eye position to be represented in appropriate head-fixed coordinates. These algorithms have been validated using both in vitro and in vivo measures of eye position},
Address = {Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {UI - 96362683 DA - 19961010 IS - 0042-6989 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - ENGLAND SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Algorithms, Cornea, determination, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, human, Image processing, in vitro, method, Models,Biological, ocular, ocular torsion, orientation, physiology, position, projection, rotation, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three dimensional, Time Factors, torsion, video, Video Recording},
Refid = {4846},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:8746234}
}

### 1995

• T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, G. M. Halmagyi, R. A. Black, A. N. Topple, and M. J. Todd, “Torsional eye velocity components during yaw angular acceleration identify the side of unilateral vestibular deafferentation,” Acta otolaryngol suppl, vol. 520 Pt 1, pp. 62-64, 1995.

Using dual torsion scleral search coils we have recorded 3-dimensional eye position during yaw angular accelerations of 20 degrees/s2 about an earth vertical axis in healthy subjects and in patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD). These experiments produced two interesting results: i) even in healthy subjects, the axis of eye velocity did not coincide with the (earth vertical) stimulus axis during centred rotation; ii) Patients with UVD had torsional eye velocity components that were systematically different from those in normal subjects. While in normals the direction of the torsional component of the eye velocity depended on the direction of rotation and was on average approximately symmetric for CW and CCW yaw rotation, there was a clear asymmetry in patients, which was distinctly different for left and right UVD

@Article{Haslwanter1995,
Title = {Torsional eye velocity components during yaw angular acceleration identify the side of unilateral vestibular deafferentation},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Black, R.A. and Topple, A.N. and Todd, M.J.},
Journal = {Acta Otolaryngol Suppl},
Year = {1995},
Pages = {62--64},
Volume = {520 Pt 1},
Abstract = {Using dual torsion scleral search coils we have recorded 3-dimensional eye position during yaw angular accelerations of 20 degrees/s2 about an earth vertical axis in healthy subjects and in patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD). These experiments produced two interesting results: i) even in healthy subjects, the axis of eye velocity did not coincide with the (earth vertical) stimulus axis during centred rotation; ii) Patients with UVD had torsional eye velocity components that were systematically different from those in normal subjects. While in normals the direction of the torsional component of the eye velocity depended on the direction of rotation and was on average approximately symmetric for CW and CCW yaw rotation, there was a clear asymmetry in patients, which was distinctly different for left and right UVD},
Address = {Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {UI - 96355998 DA - 19960920 IS - 0365-5237 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - NORWAY SB - IM SB - S
not_rev},
Keywords = {acceleration, Afferent Pathways, angular acceleration, ANGULAR-ACCELERATION, asymmetry, deafferentation, direction, Dominance,Cerebral, earth vertical axis, ENG, equilibrium, eye, eye movements, eye position, eye velocity, human, normal, orientation, patients, physiology, physiopathology, position, Postoperative Complications, psychology, Reference Values, result, results, rotation, search coil, surgery, torsion, unilateral, velocity, vertical, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation, vestibular function tests, vestibular nerve, yaw, yaw angular acceleration},
Refid = {4849},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:8749082}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Mathematics of three-dimensional eye rotations,” Vision res., vol. 35, iss. 12, pp. 1727-1739, 1995.

The recording of three-dimensional eye position has become the accepted standard in oculomotor research. In this paper we review the mathematics underlying the representation of three-dimensional eye movements. Rotation matrices, rotation vectors and quaternions are presented, and their relations described. The connection between search coils and rotation matrices is explained, as well as the connection between eye position and eye velocity. While examples of applications of the formulas to vestibulo-ocular research are given, the methods and mathematical analyses are also useful for studying other motor systems

@Article{Haslwanter1995a,
Title = {Mathematics of three-dimensional eye rotations},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Vision Res.},
Year = {1995},
Month = jun,
Number = {12},
Pages = {1727--1739},
Volume = {35},
Abstract = {The recording of three-dimensional eye position has become the accepted standard in oculomotor research. In this paper we review the mathematics underlying the representation of three-dimensional eye movements. Rotation matrices, rotation vectors and quaternions are presented, and their relations described. The connection between search coils and rotation matrices is explained, as well as the connection between eye position and eye velocity. While examples of applications of the formulas to vestibulo-ocular research are given, the methods and mathematical analyses are also useful for studying other motor systems},
Address = {Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {UI - 95389645 DA - 19951002 IS - 0042-6989 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - ENGLAND SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {ENG, eye, eye-movements, eye movements, eye position, eye velocity, human, mathematics, method, methods, motor systems, movement, movements, oculomotor, physiology, position, psychology, quaternions, review, rotation, rotation vector, rotations, search coil, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, system, th_review, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three-dimensional eye movements, three dimensional, Time Factors, velocity, vestibulo-ocular},
Refid = {4848},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:7660581}
}

• T. Haslwanter and S. T. Moore, “A theoretical analysis of three-dimensional eye position measurement using polar cross-correlation,” Ieee trans.biomed.eng, vol. 42, iss. 11, pp. 1053-1061, 1995.

Polar cross-correlation is a commonly used technique for determination of torsional eye position from video images. At eccentric eye positions, the projection of the sampling window onto the image plane of the camera is translated and deformed due to the spherical shape of the eyeball. In this paper, we extend the polar cross-correlation technique by developing the formulas required to determine the correct location and shape of the sampling window at all eye positions. These formulas also allow the representation of three-dimensional eye position in Fick-angles, which are commonly used in oculomotor research. A numerical simulation shows the size of the errors in ocular torsion if the spherical geometry of the eye is not considered. Other effects which can affect the accuracy of video-based eye position measurements are also discussed

@Article{Haslwanter1995b,
Title = {A theoretical analysis of three-dimensional eye position measurement using polar cross-correlation},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Moore, S.T.},
Journal = {IEEE Trans.Biomed.Eng},
Year = {1995},
Month = nov,
Number = {11},
Pages = {1053--1061},
Volume = {42},
Abstract = {Polar cross-correlation is a commonly used technique for determination of torsional eye position from video images. At eccentric eye positions, the projection of the sampling window onto the image plane of the camera is translated and deformed due to the spherical shape of the eyeball. In this paper, we extend the polar cross-correlation technique by developing the formulas required to determine the correct location and shape of the sampling window at all eye positions. These formulas also allow the representation of three-dimensional eye position in Fick-angles, which are commonly used in oculomotor research. A numerical simulation shows the size of the errors in ocular torsion if the spherical geometry of the eye is not considered. Other effects which can affect the accuracy of video-based eye position measurements are also discussed},
Address = {Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {UI - 96084493 DA - 19960117 IS - 0018-9294 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - UNITED STATES SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Algorithms, analysis, Bias (Epidemiology), determination, diagnosis, effect, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, eye position measurements, human, Image Processing,Computer-Assisted, methods, Numerical Analysis,Computer-Assisted, ocular, Ocular Motility Disorders, ocular torsion, oculomotor, physiopathology, position, projection, psychology, Reproducibility of Results, shape, simulation, size, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_rev, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, three dimensional, torsion, United States, video, Videotape Recording},
Refid = {4847},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:7498908}
}

• S. T. Moore, I. S. Curthoys, and T. Haslwanter, “Potential clinical applications of video-based eye position measurement,” , Montreal, Canada, 1995, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InProceedings{Moore1995,
Title = {Potential clinical applications of video-based eye position measurement},
Author = {Moore, S.T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Haslwanter, T.},
Year = {1995},
Pages = {--},
Comment = {Published on CD-ROM
not_rev},
Keywords = {clinical application, eye, eye position, position, potential, th_not_rev},
Refid = {4862},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 1994

• I. S. Curthoys, S. T. Moore, T. Haslwanter, R. A. Black, S. T. Smith, and G. Lennerstrand, “Video procedures for the measurement and display of the three dimensions of eye movements,” in Eye movement in reading (proceedings of the wenner gren center international symposium), J. Ygge, Ed., Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994, pp. 39-49.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Curthoys1994,
Title = {Video procedures for the measurement and display of the three dimensions of eye movements},
Author = {Curthoys, I.S. and Moore, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Black, R.A. and Smith, S.T. and Lennerstrand, G.},
Booktitle = {Eye movement in reading (Proceedings of the Wenner Gren Center International Symposium)},
Publisher = {Pergamon Press},
Year = {1994},
Editor = {Ygge, J.},
Pages = {39--49},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {eye, eye-movements, eye movements, movement, th_not_rev},
Refid = {794},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, R. Black, and A. Topple, “Orientation of listing’s plane in normals and in patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation,” Exp.brain res., vol. 101, iss. 3, pp. 525-528, 1994.

The parameters characterizing Listing’s plane have been determined in a group of normal subjects, and in patients who have had unilateral vestibular deafferentation on the right or left side. All patients were well compensated. There was no statistically significant difference in the orientation of Listing’s plane between either of these groups: Listing’s plane was approximately perpendicular to the horizontal stereotaxic plane and showed a systematic temporal tilt, i.e., it tilted right for the right eye, and left for the left eye. We also found a considerable intersubject variability in the orientation of Listing’s plane. The effect of this variability on the interpretation of three-dimensional eye position and velocity data is discussed

@Article{Haslwanter1994,
Title = {Orientation of Listing's plane in normals and in patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Black, R. and Topple, A.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1994},
Number = {3},
Pages = {525--528},
Volume = {101},
Abstract = {The parameters characterizing Listing's plane have been determined in a group of normal subjects, and in patients who have had unilateral vestibular deafferentation on the right or left side. All patients were well compensated. There was no statistically significant difference in the orientation of Listing's plane between either of these groups: Listing's plane was approximately perpendicular to the horizontal stereotaxic plane and showed a systematic temporal tilt, i.e., it tilted right for the right eye, and left for the left eye. We also found a considerable intersubject variability in the orientation of Listing's plane. The effect of this variability on the interpretation of three-dimensional eye position and velocity data is discussed},
Address = {Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia},
Comment = {DA - 19950316 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Clinical Trial PT - Controlled Clinical Trial PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {comparative study, data, deafferentation, denervation, effect, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, hearing loss, human, innervation, laterality, Listing's plane, normal, orientation, patients, physiopathology, position, psychology, Reference Values, temporal, three dimensional, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, tilt, trial, unilateral, velocity, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation, vestibule},
Refid = {5836},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:7851520}
}

• T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, G. M. Halmagyi, R. A. Black, A. N. Topple, and M. J. Todd, “Torsional eye velocity components during yaw angular acceleration identify the side of unilateral vestibular deafferentation. torsional eye velocity components during yaw angular acceleration identify the side of unilateral vestibular deafferentation.,” Acta otolaryngol suppl, vol. 520, iss. 1, pp. 62-64, 1994.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Haslwanter1994a,
Title = {Torsional eye velocity components during yaw angular acceleration identify the side of unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Torsional eye velocity components during yaw angular acceleration identify the side of unilateral vestibular deafferentation.},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Halmagyi, G.M. and Black, R.A. and Topple, A.N. and Todd, M.J.},
Journal = {Acta Otolaryngol Suppl},
Year = {1994},
Number = {1},
Pages = {62--64},
Volume = {520},
Comment = {Proceedings of the of 18th B r ny Society Meeting, Uppsala, Sweden, June 6-8, 1994
not_rev},
Keywords = {acceleration, ANGULAR-ACCELERATION, angular acceleration, deafferentation, eye, eye velocity, th_not_rev, unilateral, velocity, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation, yaw, yaw angular acceleration},
Refid = {4865},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, and G. M. Halmagyi, “Does unilateral vestibular deafferentation affect listing’s plane?,” in Neural control of gaze: information processing underlying gaze control, J. M. Delgado-Garcia, E. Godaux, and P. P. Vidal, Eds., Oxford: Pergamon Press, Elsevier, 1994, pp. 217-220.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Haslwanter1994b,
Title = {Does unilateral vestibular deafferentation affect Listing's Plane?},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Halmagyi, G.M.},
Booktitle = {Neural Control of Gaze: Information Processing Underlying Gaze Control},
Publisher = {Pergamon Press, Elsevier},
Year = {1994},
Editor = {Delgado-Garcia, J.M. and Godaux, E. and Vidal, P.P.},
Pages = {217--220},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {Affect, control, deafferentation, Gaze, Listing's plane, th_not_rev, unilateral, vestibular, vestibular deafferentation},
Refid = {4864},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, S. Wearne, I. S. Curthoys, W. Teiwes, and G. M. Halmagyi, “Effects of unilateral vestibular loss on the axis of eye rotation: on-centre rotations with large accelerations,” in Contemporary ocular motor and vestibular research: a tribute to david a. robinson, A. F. Fuchs, T. Brandt, U. Buettner, and D. Zee, Eds., Stuttgart, New York: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1994, p. –.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Haslwanter1994c,
Title = {Effects of unilateral vestibular loss on the axis of eye rotation: on-centre rotations with large accelerations},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Wearne, S. and Curthoys, I.S. and Teiwes, W. and Halmagyi, G.M.},
Booktitle = {Contemporary Ocular Motor and Vestibular Research: A Tribute to David A. Robinson},
Publisher = {Georg Thieme Verlag},
Year = {1994},
Editor = {Fuchs, A.F. and Brandt, T. and Buettner, U. and Zee, D.},
Pages = {--},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {acceleration, effect, eye, loss, ocular, ocular motor, rotation, rotations, th_not_rev, unilateral, vestibular, vestibular loss},
Refid = {4863},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• S. T. Moore, T. Haslwanter, I. S. Curthoys, and S. T. Smith, “Measurement of three dimensional eye position using image processing: a geometric approach,” in Proceedings of the ieee – international conference on image processing, , 1994, vol. 1, pp. 436-440.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Moore1994,
Title = {Measurement of three dimensional eye position using image processing: a geometric approach},
Author = {Moore, S.T. and Haslwanter, T. and Curthoys, I.S. and Smith, S.T.},
Booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE - International Conference on Image Processing},
Year = {1994},
Pages = {436--440},
Volume = {1},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {eye, eye position, position, th_not_rev},
Refid = {2576},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 1993

• T. Haslwanter, B. J. Hess, and J. Jerabek, “3d compensatory nystagmus elicited by rotations about off-vertical axes,” in Proceedings of xviith barany society meeting, H. Krejcova, Ed., , 1993, pp. 140-144.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Haslwanter1993,
Title = {3d compensatory nystagmus elicited by rotations about off-vertical axes},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Hess, B.J. and Jerabek, J.},
Booktitle = {Proceedings of XVIIth Barany Society Meeting},
Year = {1993},
Editor = {Krejcova, H.},
Pages = {140--144},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {nystagmus, rotation, rotations, th_not_rev},
Refid = {1559},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 1992

• T. Haslwanter, D. Straumann, B. J. Hess, and V. Henn, “Static roll and pitch in the monkey: shift and rotation of listing’s plane,” Vision res., vol. 32, iss. 7, pp. 1341-1348, 1992.

In three rhesus monkeys three-dimensional eye positions were measured with the dual search coil technique. Recordings of spontaneous eye movements were made in the light and in the dark, with the monkeys in different static roll or pitch positions. Eye positions were expressed as rotation vectors. In all static positions eye rotation vectors were confined to a plane, i.e. Listing’s plane was conserved. Tilt about the roll axis shifted the plane along this axis, i.e. a constant torsional component was added to all eye positions. Tilt about the pitch axis changed the pitch angle of Listing’s plane

@Article{Haslwanter1992,
Title = {Static roll and pitch in the monkey: shift and rotation of Listing's plane},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D. and Hess, B.J. and Henn, V.},
Journal = {Vision Res.},
Year = {1992},
Month = jul,
Number = {7},
Pages = {1341--1348},
Volume = {32},
Abstract = {In three rhesus monkeys three-dimensional eye positions were measured with the dual search coil technique. Recordings of spontaneous eye movements were made in the light and in the dark, with the monkeys in different static roll or pitch positions. Eye positions were expressed as rotation vectors. In all static positions eye rotation vectors were confined to a plane, i.e. Listing's plane was conserved. Tilt about the roll axis shifted the plane along this axis, i.e. a constant torsional component was added to all eye positions. Tilt about the pitch axis changed the pitch angle of Listing's plane},
Address = {Neurology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 19930107 IS - 0042-6989 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Animals, Darkness, dual search coil, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, eye-movements, Light, Listing's plane, Macaca mulatta, monkey, monkeys, movement, movements, Neurology, physiology, pitch, position, recordings, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, rhesus monkey, rhesus monkeys, roll, rotation, rotation vector, search coil, spontaneous eye movement, static, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, three dimensional, three-dimensional, three-dimensional eye, tilt},
Refid = {5835},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:1455706}
}

• T. Haslwanter, D. Straumann, B. J. Hess, and V. Henn, “Does counterrolling violate listing’s law?,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 656, pp. 931-932, 1992.
@Article{Haslwanter1992a,
Title = {Does counterrolling violate Listing's law?},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D. and Hess, B.J. and Henn, V.},
Year = {1992},
Month = may,
Pages = {931--932},
Volume = {656},
Address = {Neurology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {UI - 92286733 DA - 19920709 IS - 0077-8923 LA - eng PT - Journal Article CY - UNITED STATES SB - IM SB - S
not_rev},
Keywords = {Animal, ENG, eye movements, Listing's law, Macaca mulatta, Models,Biological, Neurology, physiology, posture, rotation, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_not_rev, United States},
Refid = {4853},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:1599225}
}

• T. Haslwanter, “Listing’s law as an organizational principle for eye-, head-, and arm-movements,” PhD Thesis, 1992.
[BibTeX]
@PhdThesis{Haslwanter1992b,
Title = {Listing's law as an organizational principle for eye-, head-, and arm-movements},
Author = {Haslwanter, T.},
School = {ETH Zurich, Switzerland},
Year = {1992},
Keywords = {3D motor control, arm movement, eye, head, Listing's law},
Pages = {--},
Refid = {4237},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• V. Henn, D. Straumann, B. J. Hess, T. Haslwanter, and N. Kawachi, “Three-dimensional transformations from vestibular and visual input to oculomotor output,” Ann.n.y.acad.sci., vol. 656, pp. 166-180, 1992.
@Article{Henn1992,
Title = {Three-dimensional transformations from vestibular and visual input to oculomotor output},
Author = {Henn, V. and Straumann, D. and Hess, B.J. and Haslwanter, T. and Kawachi, N.},
Year = {1992},
Month = may,
Pages = {166--180},
Volume = {656},
Address = {Neurology Department, University Hospital, University of Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {UI - 92286637 LA - Eng PT - JOURNAL ARTICLE DA - 19920709 IS - 0077-8923 SB - M SB - X CY - UNITED STATES JC - 5NM EM - 199209
not_rev},
Keywords = {Animal, ENG, eye movements, head, Macaca mulatta, movement, Nystagmus,Pathologic, oculomotor, oculomotor nerve, Photic Stimulation, physiology, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, rotation, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, th_not_rev, three-dimensional, three dimensional, vestibular, vestibule, visual, visual pathways},
Refid = {4418},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:0001599141}
}

• K. Hepp, T. Haslwanter, D. Straumann, M. C. Hepp-Reymond, V. Henn, P. B. Johnson, and Burnod, “The control of arm, gaze and head by listing’s law,” in Control of arm movement in space: neurophysiological and computational approaches, R. Caminiti, Ed., , 1992, vol. 22, pp. 307-319.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Hepp1992,
Title = {The control of arm, gaze and head by Listing's law},
Author = {Hepp, K. and Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D. and Hepp-Reymond, M.C. and Henn, V. and Johnson, P.B. and Burnod},
Booktitle = {Control of Arm Movement in Space: Neurophysiological and Computational Approaches},
Year = {1992},
Editor = {Caminiti, R.},
Pages = {307--319},
Volume = {22},
Comment = {not_rev},
Keywords = {Gaze, head, Listing's law, movement, th_not_rev},
Refid = {1624},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• D. Straumann, M. Suzuki, V. Henn, B. J. Hess, and T. Haslwanter, “Visual suppression of torsional vestibular nystagmus in rhesus monkeys,” Vision res., vol. 32, iss. 6, pp. 1067-1074, 1992.

Juvenile rhesus monkeys, placed on a motorized turntable, were rotated at constant velocity and then decelerated about an Earth-vertical axis. The animals were implanted with dual search coils to measure eye movements in three dimensions. By changing the monkey’s body position (upright, ear-down, supine), postrotatory nystagmus was elicited in the horizontal, vertical, or torsional direction. Peak slow phase eye velocity and time constant of velocity decay were compared between decelerations in the dark and in the light. In all nystagmus directions, illumination reduced the time constant (Tc) to values around 5 sec. Peak velocity (Vp) was markedly attenuated in the horizontal and vertical directions (around 50%), but the effect of light on Vp in the torsional direction was small (less than 20%). These findings were independent of the velocity step size. Our hypothesis is that the two dynamic components of optokinetic nystagmus, as they interact with postrotatory nystagmus during visual suppression, differ in their dimensionality: the early component (fast component, direct pathway, pursuit system) is mainly activated in the horizontal and vertical directions, while the late component (slow component, indirect pathway, optokinetic system) effectively operates in all three dimensions

@Article{Straumann1992,
Title = {Visual suppression of torsional vestibular nystagmus in rhesus monkeys},
Author = {Straumann, D. and Suzuki, M. and Henn, V. and Hess, B.J. and Haslwanter, T.},
Journal = {Vision Res.},
Year = {1992},
Month = jun,
Number = {6},
Pages = {1067--1074},
Volume = {32},
Abstract = {Juvenile rhesus monkeys, placed on a motorized turntable, were rotated at constant velocity and then decelerated about an Earth-vertical axis. The animals were implanted with dual search coils to measure eye movements in three dimensions. By changing the monkey's body position (upright, ear-down, supine), postrotatory nystagmus was elicited in the horizontal, vertical, or torsional direction. Peak slow phase eye velocity and time constant of velocity decay were compared between decelerations in the dark and in the light. In all nystagmus directions, illumination reduced the time constant (Tc) to values around 5 sec. Peak velocity (Vp) was markedly attenuated in the horizontal and vertical directions (around 50%), but the effect of light on Vp in the torsional direction was small (less than 20%). These findings were independent of the velocity step size. Our hypothesis is that the two dynamic components of optokinetic nystagmus, as they interact with postrotatory nystagmus during visual suppression, differ in their dimensionality: the early component (fast component, direct pathway, pursuit system) is mainly activated in the horizontal and vertical directions, while the late component (slow component, indirect pathway, optokinetic system) effectively operates in all three dimensions},
Address = {Neurology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 19920924 IS - 0042-6989 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {Animal, Animals, Deceleration, direction, dual search coil, earth vertical axis, effect, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye velocity, eye-movements, Light, Macaca mulatta, monkey, monkeys, movement, movements, Neurology, nystagmus, Nystagmus,Physiologic, optokinetic, optokinetic nystagmus, optokinetic system, peak velocity, phase, physiology, position, postrotatory nystagmus, pursuit, Reflex,Vestibulo-Ocular, rhesus monkey, rhesus monkeys, rotation, search coil, size, slow phase, slow phase eye velocity, slow-phase, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, suppression, system, time constant, values, velocity, velocity step, vertical, vestibular, vestibular nystagmus, visual, visual suppression},
Refid = {5841},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:1509697}
}

### 1991

• T. Haslwanter, D. Straumann, K. Hepp, B. J. Hess, and V. Henn, “Smooth pursuit eye movements obey listing’s law in the monkey,” Exp.brain res., vol. 87, iss. 2, pp. 470-472, 1991.

We have tested Listing’s law in the monkey using the dual search coil technique to record 3-dimensional eye positions during smooth pursuit and during spontaneous eye movements in the light. Our results indicate that during smooth pursuit the eye positions obey Listing’s law with a least the same accuracy as during spontaneous eye movements or during periods of fixations

@Article{Haslwanter1991,
Title = {Smooth pursuit eye movements obey Listing's law in the monkey},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D. and Hepp, K. and Hess, B.J. and Henn, V.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1991},
Number = {2},
Pages = {470--472},
Volume = {87},
Abstract = {We have tested Listing's law in the monkey using the dual search coil technique to record 3-dimensional eye positions during smooth pursuit and during spontaneous eye movements in the light. Our results indicate that during smooth pursuit the eye positions obey Listing's law with a least the same accuracy as during spontaneous eye movements or during periods of fixations},
Address = {Neurology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 19920221 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM
reviewed},
Keywords = {Animals, dual search coil, ENG, eye, eye movements, eye position, eye-movements, fixation, Light, Listing's law, Macaca mulatta, Models,Biological, monkey, movement, movements, Neurology, Photic Stimulation, physiology, position, pursuit, pursuit eye movement, pursuit eye movements, result, results, search coil, smooth pursuit, smooth pursuit eye movement, smooth pursuit eye movements, spontaneous eye movement, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't},
Refid = {5834},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:1769398}
}

• D. Straumann, T. Haslwanter, M. C. Hepp-Reymond, and K. Hepp, “Listing’s law for eye, head and arm movements and their synergistic control,” Exp.brain res., vol. 86, iss. 1, pp. 209-215, 1991.

We have recorded eye, head, and upper arm rotations in five healthy human subjects using the three-dimensional search coil technique. Our measurements show that the coordination of eye and head movements during gaze shifts within +/- 25 deg relative to the forward direction is organized by restricting the rotatory trajectories of the two systems to almost parallel planes. These so-called "Listing planes" for eye-in-space and head-in-space rotations are workspace-oriented, not body-fixed. Eye and head trajectories in their respective planes are closely related in direction and amplitude. For pointing or grasping, the rotatory trajectories of the arm are also restricted to a workspace-oriented Listing plane. During visually guided movements, arm follows gaze, and the nine-dimensional rotatory configuration space for eye-head-arm-synergies (three degrees of freedom for each system) is reduced to a two-dimensional plane in the space of quaternion vectors

@Article{Straumann1991,
Title = {Listing's law for eye, head and arm movements and their synergistic control},
Author = {Straumann, D. and Haslwanter, T. and Hepp-Reymond, M.C. and Hepp, K.},
Journal = {Exp.Brain Res.},
Year = {1991},
Number = {1},
Pages = {209--215},
Volume = {86},
Abstract = {We have recorded eye, head, and upper arm rotations in five healthy human subjects using the three-dimensional search coil technique. Our measurements show that the coordination of eye and head movements during gaze shifts within +/- 25 deg relative to the forward direction is organized by restricting the rotatory trajectories of the two systems to almost parallel planes. These so-called "Listing planes" for eye-in-space and head-in-space rotations are workspace-oriented, not body-fixed. Eye and head trajectories in their respective planes are closely related in direction and amplitude. For pointing or grasping, the rotatory trajectories of the arm are also restricted to a workspace-oriented Listing plane. During visually guided movements, arm follows gaze, and the nine-dimensional rotatory configuration space for eye-head-arm-synergies (three degrees of freedom for each system) is reduced to a two-dimensional plane in the space of quaternion vectors},
Address = {Neurology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland},
Comment = {DA - 19920131 IS - 0014-4819 LA - eng PT - Journal Article SB - IM SB - S
reviewed},
Keywords = {arm, arm movement, control, coordination, direction, Electrooculography, ENG, eye, eye movements, Gaze, gaze shift, gaze shifts, head, head movement, head movements, head trajectory, human, human subjects, Listing's law, movement, movements, Neurology, physiology, posture, psychomotor performance, Reflex, rotation, rotations, saccades, search coil, space, Support,Non-U.S.Gov't, system, three dimensional, three-dimensional, trajectory, vision},
Refid = {5840},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12},
Url = {PM:1756791}
}

### 1990

• T. Haslwanter and J. Mlynek, “Laser cooling in the center-of-mass system: a proposal for the creation of a monoenergetic atomic beam,” Annalen der physik, vol. 47, iss. 7, pp. 583-590, 1990.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Haslwanter1990,
Title = {Laser cooling in the center-of-mass system: a proposal for the creation of a monoenergetic atomic beam},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Mlynek, J.},
Journal = {Annalen der Physik},
Year = {1990},
Number = {7},
Pages = {583--590},
Volume = {47},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {system, th_rev},
Refid = {1557},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, D. Straumann, V. Henn, and B. J. Hess, “Effects of static torsion on listing’s plane in the monkey,” in Europ j neurosci, , 1990, vol. Suppl 3, p. 163–.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Haslwanter1990a,
Title = {Effects of static torsion on Listing's plane in the monkey},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Straumann, D. and Henn, V. and Hess, B.J.},
Booktitle = {Europ J Neurosci},
Year = {1990},
Pages = {163--},
Volume = {Suppl 3},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {effect, torsion, monkey},
Refid = {1556},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• D. Straumann, K. Hepp, T. Haslwanter, and O. van, “3-dimensional human eye-, head-, and gaze-trajectories in head-free gaze shifts,” in European j neurosci suppl, , 1990, vol. 3, p. 163–.
[BibTeX]
@InCollection{Straumann1990,
Title = {3-dimensional human eye-, head-, and gaze-trajectories in head-free gaze shifts},
Author = {Straumann, D. and Hepp, K. and Haslwanter, T. and van, O.},
Booktitle = {European J Neurosci Suppl},
Year = {1990},
Pages = {163--},
Volume = {3},
Comment = {Poster/Abstract},
Keywords = {human, eye, head, head free, Gaze, gaze shifts, gaze shift},
Refid = {3464},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

### 1988

• A. Alber, T. Haslwanter, and P. Zoller, “One-photon resonant two-photon excitation of rydberg series close to threshold,” J.opt.soc.am.b, vol. 5, pp. 2439-2445, 1988.
[BibTeX]
@Article{Alber1988,
Title = {One-photon resonant two-photon excitation of Rydberg series close to threshold},
Author = {Alber, A. and Haslwanter, T. and Zoller, P.},
Journal = {J.Opt.Soc.Am.B},
Year = {1988},
Pages = {2439--2445},
Volume = {5},
Comment = {reviewed},
Keywords = {threshold, th_rev},
Refid = {4854},
Timestamp = {2014.08.12}
}

• T. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, “Laser-noise-induced population fluctuations in two- and three-level systems,” Phys.rev.a, vol. 38, iss. 11, pp. 5652-5659, 1988.
@Article{Haslwanter1988,
Title = {Laser-noise-induced population fluctuations in two- and three-level systems},
Author = {Haslwanter, T. and Ritsch, H. and Cooper, J. and Zoller, P.},
Journal = {Phys.Rev.A},
Year = {1988},
Month = dec,
Number = {11},
Pages = {5652--5659},
Volume = {38},
}